There is 〜 .,      There are 〜 .

     There is a UFA bank on the corner. そのかどにUFA銀行がある

     There are equal amounts of positive and negative charge on each surface.

〜があった、(なかった)>There were ( no )
 major differences in XRD〜

     There was a 20% increase 〜

These materials have an advantage of processing temperatures, which are compatible with the sintering requirements.

The dielectric values were measured to be a K of 〜10 for 650M powder composite.

     MPB composition in the BNT-BKT system has been reported to be in the range of 16-20 at% BKT.

As is characteristic with all ferroelectric relaxor materials, the temperature〜

Although not detected by x-ray diffraction, TEM has shown a second phase is a conductive phase.

Although Pr yellow has been known as an environment-friendly inorganic yellow pigment for ceramics, the coloring powder is lackingin comparison with those of conventional toxic pigments.

     Although the sample with a composition of CeO exhibited the highest absorption at long wavelength, the optical reflection in the visible region decreases in this sample due to the presence of Bi2O3 as an impurity.

Red iron oxide has been widely known as an environmentally friendly inorganic red pigment for many uses, but its color performance is unsatisfactory in comparison to those of the conventional toxic pigments.

     Several studies have been carried out on new environmentally friendly inorganic red pigments, but these pigments cannot exceed the color of the nontoxic red iron oxide.

Fig.1 shows that compositions with x>0 had either initiated or completed crystallization after 5 min at 500 , whereas those with x<0 were still amorphous after the same treatment.

〜であるにもかかわらず、〜 〜であるけども、〜>
Even though copper should be sufficiently 〜, additional measures were taken to 〜

These and other studies provided useful information, however, a detailed explanation of the physical phenomena has not been generally provided in the literature.

Some of these phases are hygroscopic, causing the ceramics to swell and disintegrate in air.

明らかに、〜>Evidently, 〜 / Clearly, 〜    
 The AMP inhibition could be clearly distingushed from ATP

          Clearly, it is shown that MnO additions reduce dielectric loss, particularly the low frequency losses which are attributed to conduction processes.

     Clearly, it is shown that MnO additions reduce dielectric loss, particularly the low frequency losses which are attributed to conduction processes.

       Considering the difference in the color coordinates between Table 2 and Table 3, it is preferable that the a* value of the pigment powder is as positively large as possible, because it is decreased significantly after overglazing.

     Evidently they depend primarily on 

     This is obviously a tedious method.

     The negative charge contributed by X to the complex is apparently not available for metal 

〜で明らかなように、〜>As shown in Figs.8 and 9, there is 〜.

     As is evident from these figures, the properties 〜 (これらの図から明らかであるように、〜)

             As evident from Table I,the Tc was found to be slightly dependent on the firing temperature, that is, Tc increased with increasing firing temperature.

      As can be seen in this micrograph, the material appears〜

       As seen in the figure, It/Is is much greater than 〜

     It was shown in Part I, that very high compaction pressures were required to produce significant changes in fired porosities.

     It can be seen that for the 13mm diameter pellets there was an overall reduction in porosity with increasing oxygen partial pressure for all mixes.


No significant band gap shift was caused by the InP/Si substrate structure, as indicated by the spectral response.

< 明らかになった、明らかにした >----------------------

(図から)that以下が明らかである。>It is evident (from these micrographs) that a dense〜

             It is evident from Fig.1 that PNN exhibits a frequency dispersion of the dielectric maximum, i.e., the maximum dielectric constant increases and shifts to lower temperatures as the frequency is decreased.

             Clearly, it is shown that MnO additions reduce dielectric loss, particularly the low frequency losses which are attributed to conduction processes.

      It was also evident that porosity in the〜 that以下であることも明らかだった。

       Clearly, it is shown that MnO additions reduce dielectric loss, particularly the low frequency losses which are attributed to conduction processes.

      It can be clearly seen from this figure that + 

      It can clearly be seen that the densification reactions in mix 2 appear much stronger than for the other mixes .


Li et al. showed that single crystal can be grown 〜

     Observation of the ceramics showed that little growth had occurred.

     Results on the PMN composition indicate that M.P.B.may exist near this composition.

     Various data indicated that the reaction products〜

     Additional experiments revealed that the structure modification could be achieved only in a relatively 〜

     Tanaka et al. have shown that the preparation can lead to 〜

     We have shown that our capacitors have a retention lifetime.

    These results were found to agree well with those obtained using a density bottle.


that 以下が
(これまでに)明らかになっている。>It has been (previously) shown that the piezoelectric〜

A linear relation is evident between E and P in these figures.

    This figure reveals a decrease in the magnitude of P with increasing t.


This is a significant volume change that may translate〜

Manganese is an obvious possibility in this connection, with anticipated acceptor properties for oxidation states less than four, i.e.Mn2+ and Mn3+.

 the firing process, contraction took 〜

     〜 the surrounding materials during the firing process.

              Since such additions are typically small, e.g., 0.01wt%, the MnO was added in the form of a water solution containing MnSO4xH2O and during the milling process.

After heating for 10h, the samples had had a Lotgering factor 

         After stirring at 353 K for 5 h, the solvent was evaporated at 353 K using a rotary evaporator.

This will be discussed later.

〜を与える >
This gives two major results: the permittivity is 〜, and loss is low.

The piezoelectric properties of (Li0.12Na0.88) is given as: Qm=3200, d33=30 and Tc=430℃.

    An excellent account of much of this work has been given in the book Piezoelectric Ceramics.

The presence of Mn3+ ions gives rise to the rapid and immediate fall in dT observed in air-sintered samples in Fig6.

以下を暗示しているのだろう >This conclusion would imply that PMN samples that have been 〜

The textured samples were translucent, which implies clean grain boundaries and a high density.

the near MPB composition corresponding to 0.8BNT-0.18BKT was processed and evaluated.

pyrochlore formation is most likely to be due solely to PbO evaporation.

Ordered microstructures were stabilized after annealing PMN ceramics.

    From Figure 7 it can be seen that the uptake(取り込み) was maximum during the first 5-10 min and thereafter it stabilized.

Alternatively, higher solid loading suspension could be developed 

Piezoelectric phenomena exhibited by certain piezoelectric crystals, polarized polymers, and composites are used in a number of electromechanical transducer applications, including vibration, pressure, and stress sensors, as well as hydrophones.

ある種の圧電結晶や分極後高分子、そしてコンポジットによって現れる圧電現象 は、〜に用いられている。

The values of for non-180 domains are measured

    The value for both forms was found to increase with increasing t.

    The values of dT were monitored as a function of 〜

     Values at 1300 degC are lower then those obtained at 1200 degC, reflecting the observed trends in phase formation and densification.

The obtained Jsc of 24.9 mAcm2 for the InGaAs cell in the InP/Si substrate is large enough to current match

   (InP/Si基板上のInGaAsセルで得られた24.9 mA-cm2というJscは〜)

The porosity values decreased substantially with a large spread in values, ranging from 2-20%.

Neutron powder diffraction data were collected at the Swedish Research Reactor.

〜 indicated that good fits were consistently obtained for 

     The sample compositions were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (Rigaku, ZSX-100e) and found to be in good agreement with theoretical values.

     The results indicate that grain size tends to increase with sintering temperatre, in agreement with other work.

 was observed around this temperature.

     excite gas around the central regions

     〜辺りの地域に in the area near

     〜辺りの組成に in the compositions near

  for equivalent times, as revealed by Fig.4(d).

In the present example, the model reveals a strong sensitivity of shear matrix cracking stress to the matrix modulus-a potentially tailorable property.

The fourth route, reactive melt infiltration (RMI), has emerged as the preferred processing route for SiC/SiC composites.

Following three decades of research and billions of dollars of investment, CMCs are slated to appear in hot components in gas turbine engines for civilian aircraft.

Disks 1.59 cm in diameter and 3-4 mm in thickness were pressed in which a 3 wt% polyvinyl alcohol binder had been added.

These results imply that the solid solutions of the single monoclinic BiVO4 phase are successfully formed and that the solubility limit is around x=0.10 in Bi1-xLaxVO4.

 lead-free yellow pigments for Arita ware

明るい黄色 It exhibits bright yellow.

As a result, the yellow hue of CeO2 becomes a little lighter than that of CeO2.

However, praseodymium yellow is slightly bluish compared with koiki, chuuki, and usuki and it has a different tone from these traditional pigments even when color matching is performed using other paints.

bluish purple

A similar approach is to be adopted here in order to rationalise the observed trends in behaviour.

    Recently, these approaches have been extended to predict matrix cracking under multiaxial stress states and have been used to construct damage initiation surfaces.

    The second approach is a quantitative(量的な) method; at the end of each incubation period, cells were detached by trypsinization(トリプシン処理) and counted using hemacytometer(血球計算機).

Also worthy of comment is the increase in er-values in Fig.3(b), for frequencies 100Hz and 1kHz, t the high-temperature side of the peak.

These damage ,odes can result from thermal transients and can be exacerbated by stochastic events or concurrent environmental degradation (e.g., steam reactions or CMAS interactions).

    Microstructural nonuniformities also exacerbate challenges in RMI processing.

With amorphous matrices, composites exhibit very low through-thickness thermal conductivity.

His explanation is not clear. 彼の説明はあいまいだ。

Although some of these new bodies do show practical advantages in specific devices, in general the properties are not markedly different from those of PZT.

In 1935 the agonies of working with this unstable complex crystal were partially relieved by the discovery of ferroelectrricity in the potassium dihydrogen phosphate family.

Further advances will undoubtedly occur in the years ahead as the field of electroceramics follows in the footsteps of the semiconductor industry.

The preparation of ceramic compacts by die pressing has also been studied.

   Some pressed compacts of barium titanate were also investigated.

Fig.2 shows the values of strength obtained using both diametral compression and four-point bending.

   These are tensile in nature at the component edges and compressive at the center under heat-up.

Mix2 showed the smallest resistivity change as well as the shallowest (最も浅い)gradient, with a switching temperature at about 150℃.

Improvements in the performance of these devices can include enhanced electrical properties and improved mechanical strengths, the latter of which potentially allow longer component lifetimes to be achieved.

The binder appears to assist in the formation of an open-pore network which allows the liquid phase to flow easily through the microstructure.

Consequently, most of the runs were made at temperatures near 1100℃ and at pressures of the order of 5000 psi. the rate equation used is as follows.

Prior to annealing, the switching temperature was lower at 165℃

Figure 1 is s schematic diagram of the die and furnace arrangement.

When (P) is expressed in pounds per square inch and (Tc) is in ℃, the values for the constants are A=XXXXX

 英語の語彙が圧倒的に不足している。I am overwhelmingly lacking in English vocabulary.

       一方のチームが圧倒的に優勢な試合 an overwhelmingly one-sided gam

 Therefore, the current study deals with processing of collagen- and cellulose-based fibrous nanocomposites by pH-induced fibrillation and crosslinking using genipin.




These trends agree with Tanaka et al., who reported that 1 mol% Sr decrease〜

    The results indicate that grain size tends to increase with sintering temperature, in agreement with other work.

    These numbers are consistent with those reported earlier for this system around MPB composition.

    This is also in agreement with Eq.(6. これは式6とも一致している。

    This value is in good agreement with a=10.599A measured by Bhrout and Wartz.

    As can be seen, reasonably good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment under these conditions.

            These results are in agreement with the laboratory studies.  これらの結果は、実験室での研究結果と一致している。

            The evidence we uncover is broadly consistent with all three of the model's predictions.〜とおおまかに一致している。

    In accordance with the reflectance spectra in Fig.2, the energy decreased with increasing Bi3+ content and a relatively low Eg value (2.54 eV) was obtained for CeO.

    The experimental values obtained were in good agreement with the theoretical values derived by following Nielsen's complex rule in the filler content range of 50-80vol% except at 90vol%.

    The sample compositions were measured by X-ray fluorescencee spectroscopy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical values.

〜 indicated that good fits were consistently obtained for 

In agreement with the previous studies, no evidence was observed〜.

These results are in accord with those of electrical experiments

The TGG process is dependent on the nucleation〜

             The L*,a*,b* values depend on the sample composition.

     The strength of sintered ceramics has been shown to be highly porosity dependent.

     Depending on operating conditions, a turbine sometimes receives some water droplets instead of steam.

               The absorption-edge wavelength depends critically on the bismuth content.

            As evident from Table I, the Tc was found to be slightly dependent on the firing temperature, that is, Tc increased with increasing firing temperature.

      Furthermore, the dielectric response of the Mn-doped ceramics depends strongly on the sintering atmosphere employed.

      However, their successful use depends on their ability to wet each grain.

The temperature dependence of dielectric constant was measured〜

 Fig.1 Curie temperature compositional dependence of PbTiO3 with BiFeO3.

     The temperature dependence of relative permittivity and dissipation factor for the samples sintered at the five temperatures are shown in Fig.6.

This means that very small changes appear 〜

     Poor conductivity and a granular microstructure mean that these can be as 〜

     It has the value x(2-<nMn>/2), where <nMn> is the mean manganese oxidation number.

The physical meaning of C2 is that it is equal to the changes   

Since 〜,〜   Since 1991, 〜      Since the late 1960s, when transparent PLZT

On the other hand, 〜

               On the contrary, the b* value decreases in CeO, because Bi2O3 was observed in this sample as an impurity phase, as shown in Fig.1.

その一方、   対照的に、〜、それに対して >In contrast,

一般に、〜>In general, 〜 又は、Generally,〜

    In the third route, SiC-based matrices commonly are formed through repeated precursor infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP).

一般的な〜>A general technique for investigating relaxor ferroelectric ceramics is 〜

一般的な見解では in the general remarks  一般的な誤解  a popular misconception

Transgranular failure was found to be more common in the barium-titanate samples indicating that the liquid phase was not the weakest link.

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL、前十字靭帯) is the most commonly injured ligament and current treatment options include autograft(自家移植), allografts(同種移植), and synthetic grafts.

Seemingly, 〜 または
Apparently, 〜

今の所、 今までのところでは、〜>As yet,
 this result is unexplained.

Among the composites studied so far, the simplest types are the ones with 0-3 connectivity.


今まで〜>Until now,
 diffraction work on PMN has indicated〜

 Energies of 5eV or above are not     then decrease above 75 for B-2

              Almost all TP decomposed at above 200℃ under any O2 gas pressure. 200℃以上で

     Above 550, there is no further mass loss,〜

     At 100℃ and above, the losses decreased to 〜1.0% and〜

    The apparent decrease in density for specimens sintered at > 1250  may be attributed directly to 

Hot pressing was required at temperatures less than 835℃,

      Thus there has been an extensive search for dielectric materials which can be fired at temperatures less than 1000°C.

     Weight loss due to PbO volatility was limited to less than 1%.

              heated up to a temperature of ~1100 degC.

     A single-phase cubic fluorite structure was observed for pigments with bismuth contents of 20 mol% or lower, whereas Bi2O3 was obserbed as an impurity phase in the dample with a Bi3+ content of 23 mol%.

     Cellulose nanofibres with diameter below 50 nm and collagen fibrils with diameters below 50 nm and collagen fibrils with diameter below 100 nm, were used to produce the fully biobased nanocomposites.


less than〜は、正確には〜未満を表し、〜以下は、equal to or less than〜となる。

Below the dielectric maximum, the square hysteresis loops are typical of a normal ferroelectric with long-range dipole coupling.

For x<0.5 the permittivity of the ordered samples exhibits diffuse and frequency-dependent behavior characteristic of a relaxor type response. However, for x>0.6, the ordered compositions show

A direct measurement of the residual pressure was not possible below certain values.

    〜 reduce the substrate cost, as described below. (以下に記述したように〜)

The following is his story.  以下は彼の物語である。

以下が私たちの意見である。見解である。>It is our opinion that the thermodynamic transformation 〜

Also, both the dielectric constant and tand loss maxima shifted towards higher temperatures with increasing frequncy, which〜

    Shifting of the FE-AFE phase transition temperature is a difficult problem.

    The phase transition corresponding to FEo phase to FEt phase can be shifted by ionic substitutions.

 田中は、これに以下のように答えた。Tanaka answered as follows 

The intensity relationships of the banda are approximately the same for these bromo and chloro complexes except forthe trans-dihalo complexes.

 a field of study other than Buddhism(仏教以外の〜)

Stoichiometric amounts of PbO, MgO, and Nb2O5 were mixed together in methanol

Table 2 shows the L*a*b* color coordinate data for the CeO pigments together with those of commercially available praseodymium yellow and chrome yellow.

Dextrin acts as a protective colloid, keeping the precipitate highly dispersed. There is difficulty in keeping grease in the joint when it is heated with a burner.

PZT ceramics and piezoelectric composites are poled in an oil bath by applying a large dc electric field.

Pressure was applied to both plungers by means of separate hydraulic rams, and the amount exerted was determined from calibrated dial gages in each hydraulic system.

The reaction mixture was maintained at a temperature a little 〜 

    The heat of reaction keeps the temperature above 60℃ for about 5min.

    Initial wet milling of the barium carbonate and titanium dioxide was followed by reaction at 1100℃, which was maintained for 2h.


In summary, relaxor properties are maintained in the less oxidizing CO2 environment, whereas the oxidizing conditions of air promote a rapid transition to normal ferroelectric properties.

In other words, 〜

Several researchers studied piezoelectric materials 

For simultaneously ferroelectric-ferroelastic materials, there ia a one-to-one correspondence between switching by stress and electrical field.

As discussed previously, it remains an open〜

Previous work on our sol-gel PZT has shown that 

It is worthwhile thinking about the types〜

The significance of these observations for this atudy ia as follows.

Piezoelectric phenomena exhibited by certain piezoelectric crystals, polarized polymers, and composites are used in a number of electromechanical transducer applications, including vibration, pressure, and stress sensors, as well as hydrophones.

ある種の圧電結晶や分極後高分子、そしてコンポジットによって現れる圧電現象 は、〜に用いられている。

move at the constant speed(一定のスピードで移動する

    The lattice volume was constant for samples with Bi3+ contents exceeding the composition limit to form solid solutions in a single phase.

    Sintering was carried out at temperatures from 1200 to 1300 degC for 2h, with constant heating rates of 10 degC min-1 applied.

It has been reported that the ABO3 structure perovskites Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 and Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 (hereafter designated PFN and PNN, respectively) are difficult to fabricate as single-phase ceramics due to the appearance of stable lead-niobate pyrochlore phase on calcination.

The color properties of the samples were estimated in terms of the CIE L*a*b* system using a colorimeter (Konika-Minolta, CR-300).

Since blue is the complementary color to yellow, the samples are yellow.


    The latter means an unexpected change in color during a firing of pottery.

ただし、色は赤色から色に変化している。However, its color was changed from red to yellow.


The primary particles have an average particle size of approximately 100 nm.

Therefore, a novel pigment that can replicate the colors of koiki, chuuki, and usuki is required by potteries that place a premium on traditional colors.

The ionic radius of Mn2+ and Mn3+ are 67 and 58 pm, respectively, for six-fold coordination in the (expected) low spin-state, these ions substituting for 0.95MN, 0.05Ti.

一例として>As one example
, all-oxide CMCs-typically alumina fibers in porous alumina/aluminosilicate matrics-will be used in engine exhaust structures.

A waveform connection part 26 connects a reproduced waveform of the introduction part and a reproduced waveform obtained from the ciphered data together before the reproduction of the introduction part ends.


Early observations on Rochell Salt by Cady and coworkers included measurements of elastic properties, dielectric constant, piezoelectric effects (including the first observation of the Curie point at 23 degC), and the anomalously high d14 value in this crystal.

Some of the more important people and events in this earliest period, which formed the basis for all later ferroelectric activities, are summarized in Table II.

But the major impetus in ferroelectric ceramics came near the end of World War II, when BaTiO3 and other perovskite-family oxides were discovered.

A very marked improvement in the microstructure of the ceramics has been obtained.

〜と言われている>  彼は億万長者と言われている。It is said that he is a billionaire

      13は不吉な数と言われているThirteen is said to be an unlucky number.

 HLC were used at the sixth passage.(移行) 

Human ligament explants (移植片)were obtained from orthopaedic(整形外科の) surgery(外科) from consenting(同意した) patients (20-40 years).

This initial study indicates that preconditioning the materials in appropriate body fluids before implantation can be done and may be helpful to limit dimensional changes and weight changes after implanting.




that以下は(一般に)受け入れられている>It is ( generally ) accepted that〜

 The growth process is driven by the difference in surface free energy between the template and the matrix grains during thermal processing.

This is further supported by the observation that small perovskite reflections were found by XRD〜

 Within the limitations of the experimental technique, the latter scenario is not believed to apply to the present specimens.

Among the composites studied so far, the simplest types 

In one formation, surface elements containing rebar layers are embedded within those 3-D elements that reside inside the tows.

This classic work established unequivocally the existence of the piezoelectric effect and correctly identified Rochlle Salt and a number of other crystals as being piezoelectric.

    There seems to be no doubt that the characteristics for the hot-pressed material are superior to the conventionally prepared ceramic in practically every instance.

    Undoubtedly, the PZT family is the most important and versatile composition base for ceramic piezoelectric elements, but two other developments in the materials field are also of major interest.

During this time some sintering of the powder in the die takes place at these relatively high temperatures, making the relative density at time zero a function of the operating temperature.

It was felt, therefore, that a similar approach might apply for the hot pressing of niobate ceramics, in which case a choice of the most feasible combinations of time, temperature, and pressure for fabrication could readily be made.

    The housekeeping gene(endocontrol) was nicely expressed on both control and XColl-Cell, for both culture systems, HLC and HEC.




Barium titanate was obtained from TAM chemicals as high-purity grade.

    Grain sizes as low as 0.3mm were achieved. (達成した、実現した)

    Evidence has been gained from XRD that the formation of pyrochlore phases may be avoided by adopting these procedures, leading to very good dielectric properties of the PMN ceramics.

Extremely poor electrical properties were obtained.

In this case, heat treatment at 1300 ℃ for 24h yielded completely 1:1 ordered samples for all values of x.

The latter is important in obtaining pellets with parallel faces for dielectric measurements.

The obtained Jsc of 24.9 mAcm2 for the InGaAs cell in the InP/Si substrate is large enough to current match

        (InP/Si基板上のInGaAsセルで得られた24.9 mA-cm2というJscは〜)

The solid obtained was dried at 403 K for 1 h and successively calcined 1273 K for 1 h.

These hot-pressed specimens exhibit a finer microstructure than that obtainable by conventional processing.

This is shown in the x-ray-diffraction pattern in Fig.9.

       In Fig.10, an x-ray-diffraction pattern of a PZT film is shown.

       The x-ray-diffraction pattern of the capacitor showed that the PZT〜

       An X-ray diffraction trace of the same surface-ground sample after annealing at 500 ℃ is shown in Fig.2.

       Fig.4 shows X-ray diffraction traces from fracture 〜

       Figure 1 shows the X-ray patterns of samples with some selected compositions.

       Figure 1 shows the X-ray patterns of samples.

       An X-ray pattern and characteristics of powder obtained by this method is given in Fig.1 and Table II correspondingly.

   XRD was used to identify the crystalline phases formed, with the microstructural development examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

   Here Iperov and I pyro refer to the intensities of the {110} perovskite and {222} pyrochlore peaks, respectively, these being the most intense reflections in the XRD patterns of both phases.


However, some additional reflections, which a pyrochlore phase of composition PMN, are formed in some XRD patterns.

    The strongest reflections in the majority of the XRD patterns indicate formation of the perovskite phase of PMN, which could be matched with JCPDS file 27-1199.

   XTiN indicates the maximum value in the X-ray peak strength group of the TiN.

粉末エックス線解析>Powder X-ray diffraction analysis
was carried out on crushed sintered pellets, using a Siemens D500 X-ray diffractometer.

et al. ( et al. )>(〜ら、 読み方はand others, 通常はイタリックで記述、主に人名に使用する)  Tanaka et al. have investigated〜

etc. >   (〜その他、 読み方はエトセトラやand the rest, 通常はイタリックで記述、主に物の場合に使用する) 例)Book, pen, etc.

As the grain size increases, the number of boundaries increases with the grain decreases, and the large dielectric constant of the grains would become less affected by a low dielectric constant grain boundary.

しかし、地上付近では偏西風の影響が少ない。However, westerlies have little affect on the atmosphere near to the ground.

 high-grade products have not been affected so much since the quality of import products is inferior.

The tensile strength and fracture toughness of the other materials were affected by the reducing atmosphere but as has been suggested, this could be due to the lack of available liquid-phase material, leading to a more porous and therefore weaker structure.

     This wide variation in mechanical data indicates that the mechanical behaviour of biological tissues like human tendons/ligaments are complex and influenced by extraction location and method, age of the person, testing conditions of temperature and humidity used loading rate, shape of the piece, etc.


investigate the effect of stress on(人に対するストレスの影響を調べる)

Sic/SiC blades would produce much lower centrifugal forces and enable lighter turbine disks and bearings.

Much more could and should be said about the many important contributions to the exciting developments in ferroelectricity over these times, but the primary task here is to trace a few of the central ideas and applications.

For the hot-pressed 50-50 ceramic, it appears that the rate of aging will be slower than for the conventionally prepared ceramic.

However, in most engineering ceramics, porosity is rarely allowed to exceed 5%, due to the detrimental changes in mechanical strength which high porosity can yield.

Pressing the powder into“green”pellets was achieved using a range of cylindrical dies.




〜と思われる。考えられる。 「文章」であるように思われる。>It seem
s that + 文.

     It seems that PZT is used for piezoceramics.

     It is seen from our results in Table 2 that 

     It appears that both Kand T decrease〜

     It is believed that this transition occurs at temperatures 〜

     We believe that 

               This is believed to be due to the partial reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ leading to the increased electron hole conductivity commonly associated with Pb compounds.       believeは、信じているレベルの思い込み

pyrochlore formation is most likely to be due solely to PbO evaporation.

        同類、発展形) This indicates that 〜, This means that 〜, This results suggest that 〜, etc.


    This problem need more investigation and is still open to discuss.



It is considered that 〜, It is thought that〜 

       It is considered that 〜が、「〜と思われる。〜と考えられる。」というのは、日本人英語によくある間違い。



analysis was performed using diffractometer.

                    Rietveld refinement of the XRD patterns was performed using the RIETAN-FP program.

       A preliminary study was carried out on the simplifired 〜

       Electroding was carried out by sputtering gold, followed by〜

                     An investigation has been carried out into the acceptor-doping of lead magnesium niobate titanate (PMNT) through the introduction of manganese ions.

                     Dielectric measurements were carried out on an automated system, whereby a temperature-control box and LCR meters were controlled by a desk-top computer system.

    A preliminary study was carried out on the simplified barium-titanate formulation shown in Table?.

        Measurements were made using a LVDT at 1Hz frequency.

     Resistance-temperature plots were made to assess changes in the PTCR effect and the Curie temperature.

       In accordance with a structural model proposed earlier, attempts were also made to refine a structural model 〜

       The TEM studies were done on an microscope〜 / The measurement was done at 1kHz.

       Ceramic fabrication was achieved by adding 3wt%〜

       Microwave dielectric measurements were conducted by a transmission technique.(実験を実施した)

       Final sintering of the ceramics was conducted at a temperature of 1225-1250  for 1h.

       The present investigation was undertaken to further our understanding of 

                Ceramic fabrication was achieved by adding 3 wt% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), prior to pressing as pellets in a pseudo-uniaxial die press at 100 MPa.

      However, once sintering had taken place the porosity values decreased substantially.


〜が行われる>A general technique for investigating relaxor ferroelectric ceramics is to carry out a partial substitution of the cations in a parent

     A general technique for investigating relaxor ferroelectric ceramics is to carry out a partial substitution of the cations in a parent, model relaxor composition with foreign cations, and to monitor the effect on the dielectric properties.


In order to 
perform this task, 

         To do this, we used a commercial ink jet printer〜

The specimens were subjected to various analyses 〜

Three essential issues arise from the results: (i) whether rhombohedral or cubic symmetry applies at 300 K; (ii) given the evidence in favor of rhombohedral symmetry, which of R3m or R3c symmetry is appropriate at both 300 and 10 K; and (iii) tha nature of the coordination of the lead ion in PMN.Weight losses occurring during the sintering of PMN samples are due to PbO volatilisation.

      Being a naturally occurring crosslinking agent, Genipin is used in biomedical products and was found to be significantly less cytotoxic(細胞毒性) than gluteraldehyde (グルタルアルデヒド)and is a biocompatible chemical.


Tanaka pointed out that modification of BNT with BS results in better piezo properties.

Perhaps the most significant theoretical development in ferroelectricity occurred in 1960 with the formulation of the elegant soft-mode description of the ferroelectric transition made almost simultaneously and independently by Cochran and Anderson.

     Studies by Goodman and by Lewis and coworkers at General Electric in Great Britain showed that ceramic lead metaniobate could be pold to a strongly piezoelectric state, and that in the system PbNb2O6 a morphotropic boundary did occur.


This change is accompanied by an increase in the magnitude of the permittivity and the temperature of the permittivity maximum.

The stage at which this oxidation takes place is likely to be dependent on reaction conditions.

During the age of diversification, a number of interesting practical developments took place as well.


In Eq. (1), r0 andr are〜

     In the corona poling technique, charge from the corona 

    The lattice constant of the cubic fluorite phase increased linearly with increasing Bi3+ doping within the composition range of the single-phase fluorite structure.

This is probably due to a combination of effective vibro-milling, 

Perhaps a more important observation from a technological perspective is that 

           It can be clearly seen that if the Tc for samples having compositions near PNN were measured at very low frequencies, e.g., 0.1Hz, then a linear relationship would probably exist.

    This is probably due to a combination of effective vibro-milling, the carefully optimised reaction to form single-phase precursor powders and the sintering procedure adopted.


The samples were placed in a test chamber, which could be operated between -180 and +250℃.


Likewise, 〜

A similar procedure was utilized in the〜 
/ 〜 , as shown for similar materials.

These same compositions formed elemental Pb

         The same pigments have been used in overglazing for many years.

    The sintering profile was the same as that used in Part?of this investigation.

    The rate constant K can be shown to be independent of pressure at a given temperature by the same procedure.


as 〜 as B As recently as 2001, 〜 2001年と同じように最近

     A as well as B Bと同様にA  The properties of samples as well as vacuum-sintered material were recorded.


    Ceramic businesses in Saga prefecture in Japan are under pressure due to competition from imported products from other countries as well as similar products produced in other prefectures in Japan. (〜と同様に)

    In addition, the properties of samples fired in the production and laboratory furnaces as well as vacuum-sintered material were recorded (Fig.11).

    The starting materials for this study were the same as those taken for the main experiments in Part?of this investigation.


(大きさが)同程度である>comparable ( in magnitude ) to 〜

〜に応じて、〜>In terms of
 frequency, the Tm behavior shows 〜.

    Depending on operating conditions, a turbine sometimes receives some water droplets instead of steam.

   The price varies according to the number of options the customer selects.

Ferroelectricity in KNbO3 was first discovered by Matthias.

approximately (aboutよりも堅い語) / いくぶん、やや somewhat / 正確に、精密に accurately

      〜, which is approximately twice the strain response of a ramdom〜

    The primary particles have an average particle size of approximately 100 nm.

    However, in CO2, relaxor properties persist up to concentrations of approximately 8mol% manganese.

    Enhanced piezoelectric coefficients are observed, and in certain compositional regions radial coupling coefficients have been increased from 32 to approximately 48%.

Moreover, attempts to refine site occupancy factors did not lead to significantly improved agreement indices.

    Swartz and Shrout and Voss, et al. reported that by first prereacting the B site refractory oxide of such Pb(B1/2B1/2)O3 and/or Pb(B1/3B2/3)O3 perovskites to form the appropriate columbite BB2O6, or wolframite BBO4, compounds, and then followed by reaction with PbO, the amount of pyrochlore phase is greater reduced.

    Since the a* value of the present CeO2 pigment is much larger than that of the commercially available praseodymium yellow (Table 2), the panel coated with former is slightly reddish compared with that coated with the latter.

This is considerably lower than Ts.

顕著な改善 marked improvement // remarkable improvement // significant improvement

Ceramic specimens were sintered at about 1100℃ to more than 95% of theoretical density.

    The density of the samples is around 4.25.

    Each mix was processed in batches of about 150g, except for mix 3 which was prepared in a commercial-production facility.


High-density ceramics within the system lithium-sodium niobate ( a partial phase diagram for which is shown in Fig.1 ) support high sound velocities and exhibit electromechanical properties of interest for high-frequency filter applications.

The chief determining factor was the accuracy of the balance.

chiefは「ある集まりの中でもっとも重要な、偉い?〜」とい う感じ

   There is no induction period between the first evolution of gas and the main acceleration of the reaction.


    The allicins and sulfides are presumed to be the principal source of aroma and flavor of allium species.


    melting point either higher or lower than that of the major component.


多数の試み〜、多くの試み〜>Numerous attempts
 have been made so far to evolve a simple fabrication technique 〜

     Many attmpts have been made to explain the 〜

Many of the particles on the films were sufficiently thin to 〜

The relaxation phenomenon in ferroic materials has been investigated by many researchers.

多くの種類のそれぞれ each and every type of a group consisting of many different types

In summary, the concentration of Mn3+ ions is expected to be much greater in the air-sintered than in the CO2-sintered systems.

勘定奉行を長官とする場合が多い。 It is often headed by kanjo bugyo (commissioner of finance)

It is interesting to note that compositions near to PFN showed virtually no relaxational character, but with increasing amounts of PNN, the dielectric maximums decreased and showed more and more frequency dispersion.

Many of the techniques developed for semiconductor crystals will be applied to ferroelectrics.

多くの点で、〜>In many ways,
 0-3 composites are similar to PVDF polymer.


     The loss factor of the piezoelectric PMN-30%PT is much higher than for the electrostrictive PMN-10%PT.

     In both cases, the induced polarizations under application of E are significantly larger than those of for a "hard" PZT ceramic.

              Compositions having greater than 60% PFN were found to sinter at temperatures lower than 1000 degC.

the bandgap energy increases again in the range of x > 0.55because of the gradual increase of Ce-O-CE bond in the sample.

困難な場合が多い There are lots of difficulties.

一般には本土空手を指す場合が多い。Generally, it is often the case that dentoha karate refers to "hondo karate" (karate on the Japanesemainland).

The magnitude of kp at room temperature is of the 〜.

The most important criterion is suppression of the evaporating alkali metals above 1140 .

A large value of Pr for B-5 can be explained〜

     In the region that the single fluorite phase is obtained, the XRD peaks shifted to lower angles with increasing Bi3+ content, because Ce4+ and Zr4+ in the host lattice are partially substituted by larger Bi3+ ions to form solid solutions.

In addition, the electromechanical properties of KNN are inferior to those of PZT and 〜

Swartz and Shrout and Voss, et al. reported that by first prereacting the B site refractory oxide of such Pb(B1/2B1/2)O3 and/or Pb(B1/3B2/3)O3 perovskites to form the appropriate columbite BB2O6, or wolframite BBO4, compounds, and then followed by reaction with PbO, the amount of pyrochlore phase is greater reduced.

Figure 4 shows the effect of MnO additions on the dielectric loss as a function of temperature.

Long soaking time were performed at temperatures of 300, 600,700,900,and 1300 degC.

     〜for firing temperatures in the 1150-1250 degC range.

Researchers are currently working on applications for it in fuel cells and other devices.

    Application to
 human activity (人間活動への応用)

  They now find use in a wide range of applications including motor-protection devices, heating elements and temperature sensors.

    To provide a method for manufacturing reflecting devices for photonics application which has high reflection quality.


    The drivers for replacing metallic alloy with oxide CMCs in these applications include reduced weight, enhanced acoustic attenuation, and increased component lifetime.

    This research is expected to be applied to assist with devices for patients(この研究は患者の補助装置などへの応用が期待される)

    The discovery is expected to be used in the treatment of the obesity.(その発見は糖尿病治療への応用が期待される)

>This difference in behaviour is attributed to verying oxidation states of the manganese ions, it being proposed that that air-sintered samples contain predominantly Mn3+-ions.

Investigations of doped BaTiO3 led to the discovery of a remarkable change in resistance at the Curie point.

In 1952, studies by Goodman at Globe Union uncovered the interesting and strong ferroelectric properties in the "Goodmanite" phase of PbNb2O6.

The authors are indeed greatly indebted to Nell Coda, Chief of Engineering of Erie Technological Products, for making available the transcripts of those original proceedings, which now make fascinating reading.

The occurrence of spontaneous polarization was a fearsome violation of the by-then sacred Neumann's principle, and it was not until Jaffe's suggestion of the necessary occurrence of phase change at Tc that tis seeming conflict was resolved.

 fitting alumina or zirconia rods served as plungers for transmitting the applied pressure to a preformed disk of the niobate composition.

1cm2 samples were placed on the bottom of the wells of a 24-well plate(井戸プレート、培養プレート), HLC or HEC were seeded at the starting density of 10x103 cells cm-2.

Figure 3a shows the SEM image of the cross-section of cellulose film with large number of submicrometer fibrils arranged in a layered pattern.

 For both cell attachment/proliferation(激増) and cell differentiation(区別) study, first samples were covered up (包み隠す)with complete culture(栽培) medium and incubated at 37degC during 3x30 min.

足りない分を補う to make up for insufficient parts