は>  <あかさたなページに戻る>

反対に、〜は、〜である。>In contrast, 〜  / On the other hand, 〜

    On the other handは、○○は○○である。反対に、●●は●●ではない。という場合に使用する。

反対に、〜である。>On the contrary,〜 / Conversely, 〜(主に文章用)

それに反して、それどころか>By contrast, in the electrically poled samples, the crack

     The human ligament is reported to have maximum strength of 4.4+3.3 MPa by Nachemson and Evans, whereas (〜に反して)a a max strength of 15+5MPa was reported by Chazal et al.


〜するはずである。>The process should compress the agglomerates.

     The stability of fluorite relative to perovskite should increase with PbO excess or deficiency, as reflected in Fig.8, particularly for a > 1 and b < 0.

     However, it should be possible to improve the fatigue behavior of this capacitor type by increasing the RuO2 interlayer thickness.

〜は発見されている。>Similar particle size effects have been found for other perovskite.

      Composite scaffolds based on bacterial cellulose/collagen were reported by Zhijiang and Guang, and were found to be biocompatible.


発見することが出来る>A suitable nonlead replacement of lead-based piezoelectrics can be found in the LN-NN-KN ternary system.

発見すること>The objective of this study was to find the suitable nonlead composition〜

見つかった、発見された>The dielectric constant k and density were also found to increase with firing temperature.

    Following the discovery of positive-temperature-coefficient-of- resistance (PTCR) effects in doped samples of barium titanate and the subsequent deduction that this is due to a gain-boundary phenomenon.

    Kubara et al. discovered that the best PTCR properties (steepest gradients and largest total resistivity change) were obtained with 20% porosity.

判明した>The news proved to be true そのニュースは真実であると判明した。

    The results were established.

〜の範囲で>〜 in the range of 85 - 120 ℃.  / In the range of 0-250, the dielectric loss〜 / in the range from 1200 to 1275℃

    Mixes 3and 4 showed similar porosity values, ranging from 16%-27%.

    The diameter of the sintered pellets ranged from 10.5-11.2mm and this combination resulted in a contact ratio of approximately 1.2.


範囲、領域>This microwave region of the spectrum has become of interest in recent years. (地域、領域、範囲)

           The Raman spectra also showed the presence of hematite characteristic bands in the region 200-700 cm.

    In this range, the material is metallic in character.( 範囲、幅、程度)

     Two specimens of CdSiO3 were examined by selected area alectron 〜(範囲、領域、分野、区域)

    Sectioning of the larger pellets using a rotating diamond coated saw of 0.75mm width produced four beams from each disc.

    In simulated body conditions the strength and elongation(伸長) of the sterilized(無菌) composites were 37-57 MPa and 15-17%, which is in the range of natural ligament/tendon.

幅広く〜>Instrumental methods for detecting end points are being widely investigated.

    The levels of porosity of the fired pellets were largely dependent on the partial pressure of oxygen present in the sintering atmosphere.

    Earlier work on ceramics in the system potassium sodium niobate by Egerton and Dillon indicated that relatively low dielectric constants and high electromechanical coupling coefficients could be obtained over a wide compositional range.


〜を発展させた、進化させた、展開させた>First an optimized processing procedure was evolved for obtaining the dense ceramics of each composition.

〜倍〜>The textured ceramic showed piezoelectric coefficients and strain levels two times greater than random ceramics. 〜より2倍大きい

      The grain size of the templated grains within samples containing 1vol%ST templates is predicted to be 〜1.7 times larger than in samples containing 5 vol%ST.

離れると〜>Moving away from the MPB increases the transition temperature but piezoelectric properties decrease significantly.

離れる>Before leaving the early Rocheele Salt work, it would perhaps be as well as to review briefly some of the major difficulties which Rochelle Salt presented to those early studies.

判定した>The validity of the equation can be judged by weighing the reaction products.

〜は〜し、〜した(主語一つ、動詞二つ)>Small single crystals were grown from the flux and studied by Mylnikova and Bokov.

反応させた〜>The resultant slurry was dried and placed in alumina crucibles whereby reaction was carried out at 1000 degC for 4 hours.

反応しない>化学的に反応しない  not reacting chemically

〜する場合、>The complexity of the logistics should be carefully evaluated when considering dynamic allocation.


反応物質>The manganese doping has been carried out with MnCO3 (manganese oxidation state +2) as the starting reactant, for which the properties on heating in several controlled atmospheres have been previously investigated.

反応>These are added by co-reaction of PMNT powder with MnCO3 and PbO in a single-stage reaction to sintered ceramics.

    Silicon reacts with carbon to form SiC.

試料と試薬との反応   the reaction of a specimen with a reagent

この触媒は、アンモニア合成反応に用いられる。This catalyst is used for an ammonia synthetic reaction

反応性> 安定性及び反応性 Stability and reactivity

反射>The optical reflectance was measured using a UV-vis spectrometer (Shimadzu, UV-2550) with barium sulfate as a reference.

バンドギャップ>The band-gap energies of the samples were determined from the absorption edge of the absorbance spectra represented by the Kublka-Munk function, f(R)=xxx, where R is reflectance.

バンド構造>The coloring mechanism of these CeO2-ZrO2-Bi2O3 materials is based on charge transfer from O2p to Ce4f in the CeO2 band structure.

波長>All sample exhibited strong optical absorption at wavelength below 500 nm.

図る、成し遂げる>It is thus important to achieve product differentiation to produce unique products.

バリエーション>The variation of relative permittivity, er with temperature is given in Fig.3(a) and (b) for a representative composition (x=0.0223) sintered in air and CO2, respectively.

     Variations of the dielectric constant and radial coupling coefficient with temperature for a start and radial coupling coefficient with temperature for a (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 hot-pressed and air-fired ceramic are shown in Fig. 10.

バッチ>Two batches of sintered pellets were produced, one sintered in air and the other in CO2.

パラメーター>It is seen that this parameter remains approximately constant for air-sintered samples.

〜が起こる場所>The stage at which this oxidation takes place is likely to be dependent on reaction conditions.

バリエーション>The variation of maximum relative permittivity and dissipation factor with sintering temperature is given in Figs 8 and 9, for all frequencies.

破断面>Free and fracture surface micrographs of PMN ceramics sintered at various temperatures from 1200 to 1300 degC are shown in Fig.5.

入った>The first large-scale use of SiC/SiC will be in high-pressure turbine shrouds of CFM LEAP engines, which will enter service in June 2016.

始まる、起こる>Although crystallization can be initiated at temperatures as low as 1300 degC, oxygen and excess carbon (both commonly present in precursor-derived SiC) hinder completion.

始まり、兆候>Perhaps the major U.S. contribution to this short KDP period was the briliant theoretical paper by Slater, which traced the "trigger" for the onset of ferroelectricity to an ordering of the hydrogen bonds (which are almost orthigonal to the X axis) into an antipolar array.

はじめに、〜>まず初めに,事例史を下に述べる。In the beginning, case histories are presented.

半永久に>a permanently attached artificial tooth root  半永久的に代用できる人工の歯根

〜パートで>A waveform connection part 26 connects a reproduced waveform of the introduction part and a reproduced waveform obtained from the ciphered data together before the reproduction of the introduction part ends.



始まり> Beginning with the pioneering work on Rochelle salt and potassium dihydrogen phophate, the study of ferroelectrics accelerated rapidly during World War II with the discovery of barium titanate.

発生>Dielectric constant measurements for fields along the X axis established the Curie-Weiss form for the permittivity, and the occurrence of two Curie temperatures.

    Studies by Goodman and by Lewis and coworkers at General Electric in Great Britain showed that ceramic lead metaniobate could be pold to a strongly piezoelectric state, and that in the system PbNb2O6 a morphotropic boundary did occur.

背後にある>Theories behind densification have been well documented and mathematical definitions have been produced which explain the thermodynamic forces behind densification and grain growth.

破砕>The process should compress the agglomerates, breaking them into small grains that conform to each other, instead of crushing the material into a fine and highly porous powder.

ハンドリング>Very low pressures resulted in pellets which had so little strength in the green state that handling was very difficult.

半径>The loading anvils used for the diametral test were concave with radii of curvature of 6.25mm. radiiは半径の複数形

バラつき>It was noted that when no binder was used the scatter of diametral compressive strengths was greatest.

 パーセント、重量パーセント>Preferably, the amount of first water is 25 to 50 wt.% based on the amount of the resin, while the amount of second water is 55 to 100 wt.% on the basis of the total amount of the first and the second water.

    Using HEC similar cell behaviour is observed : at day 15 cell density on test material is 54% more than on negative control.

配位子>to insert a ligand for trapping a carrieror a ligand for fine control of the emission color発光色の微細な調節をするための配位子及びキャリヤーをトラップするための配位子の挿入

ハローパターン>X線回折パターンがハローパターンとなるAlとする。 to make an X-ray diffraction pattern of Al into a halo pattern.

パターン>One can observe initiation of a similar pattern, with some delay on the test material.

    This preliminary study shows that XColl-Cell is able to support HLC and HEC adhesion and proliferation.


発色>発色のもとになる物質a substance that is used as a base of a color

裸の>裸のbare wood

判断> 幸福を金銭の面から判断することは出来ない。You can't judge happiness in terms of money. 

媒体>The prototypes were stable in PBS medium(媒体).

配向>Generally in all the studied materials, it was noted that after the first loading and unloading there is an increase in the stress, which  possibly indicates orientation of collagen as well as cellulose fibrils under load.

バイオ医療の> Cellulose nanofibres can be considered for biomedical application as cellulose presents low toxicity, biocompatibility, and excellent mechanical properties, which make it an excellent mechanical properties, which make it an excellent candidate for load-bearing(荷重負荷の) components in biomedical applications.

培養>After 9 day of culture, one can observe that HLC exhibit the normal spindle-like ,orphology on XColl-Cell, which demonstrate that cell adhesion is achieved, and XColl-Cell and negative control.



必要とされている、望まれている、要求されている>〜 has been demanded to replace 〜

〜が必要となる>Based on the above, to produce densification of the reactively calcined powder, hot presssing was required.

   Therefore, a novel pigment that can be replace the color of koiki is required by potteries that place a premium on traditional colors.

   However, more work is needed to confirm this finding.

必用となる、要求される>This would require an examination of the dielectric properties of the dielectric properties of air-sintered samples at low dopant-levels.

〜する必要がある>However, temperature coefficients and aging characteristics have still to be investigated.

必要だった>Whereas the undoped PMNT used in this work could be sintered optimally to maximum density at 1000 degC for 3h, it was necessary to sinter all manganese-doped samples at 1200 degC for 3h.

   With the 13mm pellets some polishing was necessary.


必要性>There was a real need to improve the stability against depoling which accompanied traversing the 0 degC phase transition in pure BaTiO3 and the stability against depoling associated with the low coercivity of the pure titanate ceramics.

興味を引きつけている>Relaxors have attracted a considerable amount of

同程度、匹敵する、比較可能>This performance was comparable to that of the InGaAs cells grown on bulk

     Consequently, the CeO pigment has the most yellowish hue, it is comparable with that of the commercial praseodymium yellow.

比較>Comparison with Chinese tea 中国茶との比較


比較した(された)>The d33 values of A and B are compared in Table I.

     In Figure 5, stress-strain curves of natural ligaments and tendons were compared with the stress-strain curves of the genipin crosslinked and earlier prepared gluterladehyde crosslinked composites with 75% cellulose nanofibres testen in simulated body conditions.


比較する>Table 1 compares the properties of the PZT and the prominent non-lead based systems.

     To compare these data with the conventional log X VS. reciprocal temperature relation, log1/k was plotted against 1/T(K°)

比べられる>This is to be compared with the increase in a0 shown in Fig.1 from 404 to 405 pm, some 0.25%.

比較すると〜>In comarison,

    In comparing the behaviour of cobalt and manganese as acceptor dopants, three main issues emerge〜

    By comparison, structural models with

           By comparison, a0 increases with concentration of manganese dopant for samples sintered in CO2.

            By comparison, the rise in T(er,max) with [Mn] is gradual in CO2-sintered samples, with a cross-over between the CO2- and air-sintered curves at a manganese doping-level of approximately 7%.

     However, in comparison with the corresponding gluladehyde osinked materials, genipin crosslinked ones showed higher uptakes.

〜と比較して〜>However, the piezoelectric properties of all the known nonlead materials is inferior as compared to that PZT.

     Compared to single crystal, ferroelectric ceramics are generally〜

         However, Pr yellow is slightly bluish compared with koiki.

〜と比較して〜>Light trapping effects might also be enhanced by the slightly rougher top surface for cells grown on InP/Si substrates, attributable to the increased roughness of the InP/Si substrate grown surface, relative to the bulk, epiready InP(001) substrates.

比較の目的のために、〜>For comparative purposes, a PMN was also prepared.

比較のために、〜>For comparison, 〜

     For comparison, similar panels were also prepared using traditional, commercially available overglazing pigments that contain lead and antimony as well as praseodymium yellow.


〜の比較は、〜>Comparison of these two figures will reveal a significant 〜

     A comparison of typical room-temperature values for the two types of 50-50 ceramic is given in Table ?.

〜は〜に匹敵する>The difference is comparable to the prediction above.

同程度、匹敵する>This performance was comparable to that of the InGaAs cells grown on bulk

〜に等しい>This is tantamount to making the approximation that all manganese ions are in the +2 oxidation state.

標準的な手法としては、〜>As a standard practice,

〜を標準にした〜>Also in Table I are the temperature coefficients of the dielectric constant at -30 degC,10 degC, and 85 degC with reference to the value at 25 degC.

リファレンス(標準物質)>The optical reflectance was measured using a UV-vis spectrometer (Shimadzu, UV-2550) with barium sulfate as a reference.

必須>〜, use of an atomosphere powder is essential.

ひとつ、一例>One such possibility is shown in Fig.11. (そのような可能性のひとつ)

〜のうちの一つ>この町は世界で最も進んだ町の一つだ。 It's one of the most progressive cities in the world.

〜の一つは〜>One of the most attractive features of the 0-3 design is 〜

引き起こす、促す、誘発する、もたらす>Inducing full polarization reversal at constant prestress values up to 60MPa, he found that compressive stress reduce the remnant polarization, change the piezoelectric coefficients, and decrease the coercive field.

     Huricanes cause severe damage evry year. ハリケーンは毎年大災害を引き起こしている。

     Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.

非常に highly / しっかりと、だんだんと steadily  /  十分に、完全に fully

比較的>ceramics by relatively inexpensive ceramic processing route.

     This relatively small discrepancy can be attributed〜

     In accordance with the reflectance spectra in Fig.2, the energy decreased with increasing Bi3+ content and a relatively low Eg value (2.54 eV) was obtained for CeO.

〜に等しい、〜に相当する、>This is equal to 38.5MPa.

評価できるほどに、かなり appreciably

表現する>The general composition can be expressed for convenience as PTZO.

表現されるだろう>The parent composition PMNT may be represented by the formula 0.95PMN-0.05PT, where the combination of lead magnesium niobate with lead titanate in the molar ratio 95:5 gives maximum relative permittivity at approximately room temperature, this being an important commercial consideration.

表現される>Densities of sintered pellets, expressed as a fraction of the maximum density, are plotted against manganese concentration in Fig.2.

表現型>Phenotype expression results suggest that XColl-Cell should allow ligament and endothelial adhesion and growth.

表示する>The range of compostions investigated is denoted by the shaded area

表面>Surface morphologies of STM deposited on (a) sample A and (b) sample B.

非線形>This nonlinear behavior of Tc's was also reported by Yonezawa, et al. for the PFW-PFN solid-solution system.

非連続性>This leads to discontinuities and small mechanical stresses because of the differing heating rates of the grain center, the grain boundary and the liquid phase.

比例して〜>kern.maxfiles は MAXUSERS の値に比例して増加します。

      kern.maxfiles grows proportionally to the value of maxusers

〜に比例して>By comparison, the Mn2+ ion increases the volume of its BO6 octahedron, Vb, also increasing Va in proportion.

比率>葉の長さと葉の幅との比率  a ratio of the length of a leaf to the width

引き続いて、>The solid obtained was dried at 403 K for 1 h and successively calcined 1273 K for 1 h.

表現する>Fig.6 depicts overglazed porcelain panels heated at 1073K on which the present CeO2 pigment ( which does not contain any toxic elements ) and the traditional yellow pigment ( which contain lead and antimony ) were applied.

表にする>Their L*a*b* color coordinate data are tabulated in Table 3.

微量な>Only minuscule of Ce and Bi were detected.

深い、重大な、非常に>The introduction of manganese into PMNT, however, has profound effects on its dielectric properties.

低い(相当低い)>The corresponding er,max-values are considerably lower in air-sintered samples, showing an overall decrease with increasing manganese concentration.

   Mix1 showed the lowest values, ranging from 0.6-0.75 MPa with the lowest values at 0% oxygen.

   Very low strength values were noted in pure nitrogen atmospheres and the strength doubled as the partial pressure of oxygen in the furnace was increased to 0.6 bar.


微構造>The microstructure becomes denser as the sintering temperature increases up to 1275 degC, as indicated by the grain packing and increases in grain boundary thickness.

微細な>This fine powder separates the reactive niobate from the walls of the die and the faces of the plungers and allows ejection of the disk at the completion of the cycle.

非常に>The key studies, however, which established the PZT system as exceptionally suitable for the formulation of piezoelectrics in this composition system were carried trough by Jaffe and coworkers at the National Bureau of Standards.

広がった>The horizon for workers in ferroelectrics was significantly broadened in 1935 by Busch and Scherer's report of the occurrence of ferroelectricity in potassium dihydrogen phosphate and the isostructural dihydrogen arsenate.

拡げる>Again a large spread of as sintered porosities was noted, with the largest values seen for mixes 3 and 4 (15-20%) and lowest for mix 2 (≦3%).

評価した>Fracture toughness was evaluated using miniature single-edge notched (SEN) beam specimens.

    The evaluation of the constants A, B, C, and E was made by a best fit of 13 experimentally determined intercepts.

    Cytotoxicity was performed in direct contact and using a liquid extract(抽出) according to the ISO standard procedure ‘Biological evaluation of medical devices part 5: test for in vitro (生体外の)cytotoxicity.


貧弱な>Poor thermal conductivity and a granular microstructure mean that these can be as a result of a number of conditions.敏感>Mixes 3 and 4 showed similar values, mix4 being slightly the stronger of the two, but these values were sensitive to sintering atmosphere with values from beam tests as low as 48MPa at 0% Oxygen to 83MPa at 60% oxygen.

広い面>The large faces of all of the pellets were ground flat to enable accurate density calculations to be made using the mass/volume method.

ヒートアップ>It has been shown that during heat-up the center of a thermistor has often passed through the Curie temperature whereas the extremities of the component are 30℃ below this point.

表記>「月ヶ瀬梅林」に統一して表記しました。'Tsukigase Bairin' is used to describe the plum groves

この複数存在する呼称・表記統一を図るため、1968年に当時の「月瀬村」は村名を「月ヶ瀬村」に変更した。In order to unify these multiple names and descriptions, the village name was changed from 'Tsukise Village' to 'Tsukigase Village' in 1968.

漂白された>Bleached(漂白された) dissolving cellulose from Norway spruce (Picea abides) with high cellulose content (95%cellulose, 4.75% hemicellulose and low lignin content as supplied by Domsjo) were used as starting material for the fibrillation process.

秤量> After the extraction, the samples were dried and reweighed.(再秤量)

一晩>一晩泊まる.stay overnight



〜は分析された>The calcined and sintered specimens were analyzed by X-ray diffraction〜.

         The pigments was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD; Rigaku, SmartLab) with Cu-Ka radiation (40kV and 30 mA).

〜の分析は〜>Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that ceramics in the binary system PFN-PNN were single phase since a complete solid solution was formed for the whole range of binary compositions.

不明(不明確)である>The effects of the dopants on the frequency dispersion of Tmax are unclear.

あいまいで不明瞭>vague and obscure

あいまい>His explanation is not clear. 彼の説明はあいまいだ。

〜は不明である。分からない。>The exact nature of surfaces of dielectric powders in relation to process conditions , unfortunately, is not well understood at this time.

不明だが〜>Although the details of the mechanism of the color change with the variation of the chemical composition have not been clear yet, the observed shift of the gap energy must be attributed to the changes of the width or the position of the condition bands for different chemical compositions.

不明である>It is unknown whether these vacancies are located adjacent to manganese ions, or whether they are to be found preferentially in the vicinity of magnesium, niobium or titanium ions.

〜付近に、〜周辺に>The piezoelectric properties have a broad maximum in the vicinity of the KNN.

           This was achieved by means of a thermocouple placed in the vicinity of the samples.

不連続>The dielectric constant curves shows a discontinuity at 100and 280 .

不完全な>The latter attributing the grain size dependence of k on a grain boundary volume phenomena in which a second phase of low k (pyochlore, incompletely reacted phases, impurities, etc.) was distributed within the grain boundaries.

〜を踏まえると、〜>In light of these considerations it can be easily concluded that +.

振る舞い、挙動>The behavior of the PMN and PMT-substituted system can be interpreted using similar arguments.

    If the ceramic powder behaved as a fluid (hydrostatically) the axial and radial forces during pressing would be equal.

〜の分割、分裂>The splitting in the (200) peak, shown in Fig.2, suggests the presence

〜を含む〜>A great deal of effort has recently dedicated to the manufacturing and engineering of lead-containing relaxor perovskite compounds.

     Compositions containing an excess of MgO (1 to 2wt%) were subjected

     The first route involves chemical vapor infiltration (CVI).

〜を含む>The color of the CeO pigment is almost indistinguishable from the ideal yellow hue and its slightly reddish yellow color makes it suitable as a replacement for the traditional lead-containing yellow pigment used for Arita ware.

     This is included in that plan too.  これもその計画に含まれている

     Since the K value includes viscosity, it should be a function of the temperature and should be independent of the pressure at a fixed temperature.


〜を含まない> 鉄分をまったく含まない粘土 clay that does not contain any iron


欠如、不足、>The decoupling of the high-field LUT from the Tmax at higher PT content and lack of a clear trend in Tmax with dopant are major hurdles to selection of an optimum material.

     The absence of fluorite for compositions with〜

分断>The decoupling of the high-field LUT from the Tmax at higher PT content and lack of a clear trend in Tmax with dopant are major hurdles to selection of an optimum material.

分散>The effects of the dopants on the frequency dispersion of Tmax are unclear.

          It is evident from Fig.1 that PNN exhibits a frequency dispersion of the dielectric maximum, i.e., the maximum dielectric constant increases and shifts to lower temperatures as the frequency is decreased.

      Microscopy studies of the prepared materials showed nanostructured fibrous collagen and cellulose dispersed in collagen matrix.

分散液>Figure 1b shows AFM image obtained from collagen suspensions of pH 7.


分解>Decomposition of lead oxalate produced two exthermic peaks in DTA,

     Additionally, the heterogeneous nature of precursor decomposition leads to microstructures with coarse (~100 mm) pores in the matrix-rich inter-tow regions, drying "much cracks," and fine-scale porosity.

     For a future heating rate of 12 degC per min, dissociation of the carbonate was found to occur in air at approximately 650 degC, followed by oxidation of the resulting MnO at ca. 825 degC.

粉末>An X-ray pattern and characteristics of powder obtained by this method is given in Fig.1 and Table II correspondingly.

     The prepyrolyzed powders were then heat-treated by 〜

     Powders were prepared by direct hydrolysis of the alkoxide solutions, 〜

            Disk-shaped samples for dielectric measurement of thickness 1.5 mm were sawn out of the sintered pellets.

     The air-sintered sample exhibits smaller permittivity levels

       〜 in Mn-doped samples. 

       where the relaxor-properties of the CO2-sintered x=0.0223 sample are to 

             Samples that had increased dielectric constants also had increased temperature coefficients.(〜した試料は、〜した)

フィットする、一致する、合う、適合する>    〜 indicated that good fits were consistently obtained for

フローチャート> Flow sheet for processing of piezoelectric and electrooptic ceramics.

文脈において          In this context, novel work is presented〜

分析的な              analytical

普通は、              Usually,〜    usually

部分的に partially / 部分的な partial

               This is believed to be due to the partial reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ leading to the increased electron hole conductivity commonly associated with Pb compounds.

     In the region that the single fluorite phase is obtained, the XRD peaks shifted to lower angles with increasing Bi3+ content, because Ce4+ and Zr4+ in the host lattice are partially substituted by larger Bi3+ ions to form solid solutions.

〜部分>Such structures are virtually free of the type of porosity so detrimental to the proper processing of thin-section transducers.

分布>X線の強度分布 X-ray map    角度分布〔光電子放出などの〕 angular distributions

     Further, anecdotal evidence suggests that migration during depressurization (after infiltration) and outgassing and pyrolysis during subsequent heat treatment lead to nonuniform distributions in the resulting matrix product, including development of large pores.


where文>ここで(where)〜は〜である>〜and the bulk polarizability can be written as

                              P = 3xE

     where E is the incident electric filed at the fundamental frequency.

粉砕した>The resultant calcined slug was then sufficiently ground to pass a 60 mesh sieve using a mortar and pestal

     This material was then milled with the other chemicals in the usual way.

分、時間の表記>These precursors were mixed in a planetary ball mill for 20 minutes in acetone media.

    All mixed samples were calcined at 1150 degC for 30 min by applying heat at a rate of 4 deg/min.

    TEOS was then added and prehydrolished for 2 hours.

    Then the resulting slurry was transferred into a Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave and maintained at 180 degC for 16-36 h.


不純物>A single-phase cubic fluorite structure was observed for pigments with bismuth contents of 20 mol% or lower, whereas Bi2O3 was observed as an impurity phase in the sample with a Bi3+ content of 23 mol%.


〜that以下は不可欠である>To avoid elution and discoloration, it is essential that the overglazing of such ceramics and porcelains posses excellent chemical resistance to acids.


〜は不可欠である>This work is essential  この作業は不可欠です。

    Fertile soil is indispensable for agriculture.  農業には肥えた土地が不可欠だ。


この文脈では、この前後関係では>In this context,novel work is presented here on the synthesis and characterization of the perovskite (ABO3) system manganese-substituted lead magnesium niobate titanate (PMNT).

付随する〜>The effectiveness with which the Mn(III)O6-dipoles perform this function signifies their magnitude and concomitant long-range interactions.

深い、重大な、非常に>The introduction of manganese into PMNT, however, has profound effects on its dielectric properties.

 複合>For more complex structural geometries and stress states, models that encompass all of the pertinent physics are usually intractable or require extensive computational resources.

    The microscopy studies showed a complex morphology for the nanocomposites.


複雑さ>In such cases, insights can be gleaned from models that capture the increased complexity in geometry and loading but concurrently increase the degree of approximation of constituent response.

    Third, we may recognize the very marked structural complexity.

    The phenomena are further complicated by fine-scale microstructural features that reflect the processing history of coatings.

〜のぶれ>Such temperature excursions would cause significant loss in fiber strength.

プロセス>Similar processes will be used to produce other hot-engine components, including combustor liners, turbine vanes, and turbine blades.

     This investigation, concentrates on the effects on strength due to changes in the processing variables and production processes prior to sintering.

     Small changes to the processing conditions of some of the sample groups were made as shown in Table ?.

     Additionally the processing route involving in situ pH-induced fibrillation and crossklinking of collagen seems to have positive impact on the mechanical characteristics of these materials.


不自然>But this approach is heavily constrained by the few materials that satisfy thermochemical requirements.

不安定>During sorption studies collagen samples were very unstable and broke up in PBS medium making it possible to weight the samples.

不溶性>Method for removing water insoluble porogen  水不溶性ポロゲン除去法

                 The powdery substrate is insoluble in the solvent.     粉末基質は溶媒中に不溶性である。

不活性>This part of the study is concerned with changes that result from sintering in both oxidizing and inert atmospheres.


〜部分で>A waveform connection part 26 connects a reproduced waveform of the introduction part and a reproduced waveform obtained from the ciphered data together before the reproduction of the introduction part ends.


不可能>Unfortunately, it is impossible to provide a detailed discussion of all the developments since the perovskite families appeared on the scene in the early 1940s.

不思議ではない>It should therefore not be surprising that the first microscopic theory which even attempted an explanation of this limited range did not evolve until Mason's work in 1950.

分類分け>To justify to some extent the categorization used earlier, Tables, and catalog a few of the highlights of the three ten-year periods 1940 to 1950 to 1960, and 1960 to 1970.

不公正>This would, however, be a gross injustice to what continues to be a primary tool for studying phase transitions.

文献調査>Examination of the literature on sorption reveals a great deal of confusion regarding the time to reach the sorption equilibrium.

examination (調査という意味あり)

文献>日本史に関する文献  literature on Japanese history

米国に関する文献  documents concerning the United States of America

雰囲気>The sintering atmospheres were primarily chosen to investigate the effect of increases in the oxidizing nature of the furnace conditions.

プロットする>To investigate the dependence of strength on porosity these two parameters have been plotted against each other in Fig.9.

     The resistance temperature plots for the four mixes are shown in Fig. 4.

フルイにかける>The mixture was dried, granulated and sieved to extract the granule size range of 90-500μm.

プレスShrinkage was greater in pellets pressed at lower pressures during sintering, resulting in lower final porosity levels.

     Pressing of the powder into green pellets was performed using a range of cylindrical dies.

ファンクション>In Fig.9 the dielectric constant and radial coupling coefficient of poled hot-pressed and air-fired ceramic niobates are given as a function of their molar composition.

封入した>The fused silica tube and firebrick insulation considerably decrease the radiant heat loss.

分野> 私はこの分野では素人です I'm a lay person in this field.

      政治の分野で  in the field of politics


     The method is useful for textile finishing field, film processing field and sheet processing field.

     その分野では随一の権威  the foremost authority in the field

フラックス>flux removing method フラックスの除去方法

method for processing flux residue フラックス残渣の処理方法

    Redction type flux coposition 還元型フラックス組成物

treatment method of flux residue フラックス残渣の処理方法

文章>文章を作ってください。Please make a sentence.

分離> Genipin can be obtained from its parent compound geniposide, which is isolated from the fruits of Gardenia Jasminoides Ellis.

    The impact of the stress-strain behaviour and the deformation mechanisms should be understood in detail and requires a separate study to be carried out.


分化> Cytocompatibility(細胞適合性) studies indicated that these nanocomposites allowed(許可された) human ligament cell and differentiation(分化); which is eminently(著しく) favourable(めでたい) to ligament tissue engineering.

物理的>In the case of crosslinked composites, collagen fibrils are expected to have physical crosslinks (entanglements) with cellulose nanofibres together with chemical crosslinks with the collagen matrix phase.

付着>This plasma membrane receptor indicates adhesion(付着) of cells either on ECM components, or on material substrates.

分子レベル> At the molecular level, type I collagen in the major component of all fibers and is primarily responsible for a ligament’s tensile strength.

プロトタイプ>Prototype of crosslinked collagen-cellulose nanocomposites, were prepared using strips cut from the casted films and by braiding(組みひも).



〜をベースにすると、>Based on the above, to produce densification of the reactively calcined powder, hot presssing was required.

   The coloring mechanism of these CeO2-ZrO2-Bi2O3 materials is based on charge transfer from O2p to Ce4f in the CeO2 band structure.

    Figure 1a shows atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of the isolated nanofibres had diameters below 50 nm based on the measurements of the fibers height.


〜ベースの〜>For example, micromechanics-based models of matrix cracking and fiber fragmentation in laminates under simple loadings-e.g., uniaxial tension parallel to one of the fiber directions- are mature.

〜がベースになっている>The targeted microstructural changes are based on established physical and mechanical principles.

〜の変数として〜>The physical and dielectric properties of PMN samples as a function of sintering conditions are reported in Table II.

平均すると、〜>On average,

平均的な〜は、〜>The average grain sizes of the sintered specimens were determind

            Upon SEM microstructual analysis, it was found that the average gain size and uniformity increased with sintering temperature and time.

            An average grain size of 0.5 to 1.5 mm was observed for samples fired at 900 degC or less short durations (<2h), with the grain size increasing to a maximum of about 4 microns for samples fired at 900 degC to 10 h and/or 1000 degC for 5 h.

     Four samples of each mix sintered in each atmosphere were examined and plots obtained from averaged measurements.


 平均粒径>The primary particles have an average particle size of approximately 100 nm.

減らす>Using a sintering agent which can form low temperature melting phase can effectively reduce the evaporation.

      Clearly, it is shown that MnO additions reduce dielectric loss, particularly the low frequency losses which are attributed to conduction processes.


変化させることによって>〜La was compensated by changing the B-site cations ratio.

                            The coefficients could also be modified simply by varying the Tc with additions of PbTiO3 (PT).

 変化させ>Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.


変化、変動>The variation of maximum relative permittivity and dissipation factor with sintering temperature is given in Fig.8, for all frequencies.

     The alterations in the dielectric response of the ordered samples across the system              

     The changes in stability across the system were consistent with

              Particle size analysis was carried out on the slurry with a Malvern Mastersizer, in order to ensure that no significant change in particle size had occurred during milling.

     Mix 2 exhibited its largest resistivity charge of 2 orders of magnitude in a 100% oxygen atmosphere, but mixes 3 and 4 showed little change.

     Mix 2 showed small changes in strength with the highest values obtained at conditions close to atmospheric (70MPa for diametral compression and 93MPa for four-point bending).

     The intercept of the xxxx.  tplot, may vary in a very complicated manner for two reasons; The experimental procedure employed requires a period of 45 minutes to reach the required temperature.

変換>For complete filling and conversion of molten silicon into SiC, channels for melt ingress should be of uniform size, and the sources of active species (carbon) should be uniformly distributed and readily accessible by the melt.

〜されるべきである>To serve as a substrate for nucleation and growth of the desired phase, the template particles should be thermodynamically stable at the TGG process temperature.

〜に便利なように、〜しやすいように〜、For convenience of discussion,〜     便利な convenient

    The general composition can be expressed for convenience as PTZO.

〜は別にして、〜>Aside from the obvious advantages,

〜は別として、〜>Apart from these specific questions, the existence of a macroscopic rhombohedral symmetry

〜は〜を変換する>Piezoelectrically active ceramics components convert underwater sound pressure waves to electrical signals, which are then amplified and displayed.

有用な 役に立つ useful

別々に separately

減らすために>To reduce the cost of such capacitors, less expensive electrodes such as Ag or high Ag-Pd alloys are desired.

変色>discoloration caused by blood  血によって出来た変色

別の、もう一つの> Another major U.S. contributor to the early Rochelle Salt period was Joseph Valasek. born in this country, of Czech parents.

ペレット>The pellets were of 5.1 mm diameter and 3-4 mm in thickness.

へこんだ>Concave loading anvils were used with radii of curvature of 6.25mm.

変更>Therefore, alterations in the preparation of samples to reduce the grain sizes to less than 5μm would not achieve any strength increase.

並行して> Positive and negative controls were run in parallel.



< 〜は報告されている >---------------------------

「文」は(〜も)報告されている。>It has ( also ) been reported that +文.

     It has also been reported that thermal/mechanical stresses were the driving force for failure at soldered contacts of barium-titanate ceramics.

「文」は報告された。>It was (previously 以前に) reported that + 文

研究例、報告例がある>There are a number of studies on the NaNbO3-BaTiO3 binary system, but most of them focus on the dielectric properties and systems with high BaTiO3 concentrations due to their remarkable relaxor characteristic.

〜は報告した。>Tanaka studied the system BNT-BT and reported the presence of MPB.

             This communication reports the preliminary results of studies on the sintering and dielectric properties of compositions in the PFN-PNN and/or PT binary and ternary systems for possible capacitance applications.


〜はthat以下を報告した。>Tanaka reported that the compound between Bi2O3 and Sc2O3 is a liquid.

〜によって報告された。>Ferroelectricity in BNT and BKT was initially reported by Smolenskii in 1959.

                 This nonlinear behavior of Tc's was also reported by Yonezawa, et al.5

先に報告されているように〜>PMN powders were synthesized by a modifired two stage mixed oxide route, as reported earlier.

      As previously reported, excess MgO suppresses pyrochlore formation

よそで報告されている、外部で報告されている>The crystal system of the various compositions was presumed to be cubic or pseudocubic as reported elsewhere.5,6


報告されている〜>agent with reported side-effects(副作用が報告されている薬剤)

       (The number of skin cancer patients) continues to increase / and / makes up (one third of all cancer cases) reported worldwide.

      皮膚癌患者の数は増加し続け、世界中で報告されているすべてのがん患者の3分の1 を占めます。


本研究では、〜>In this work, 〜 / In the present study,〜 / In the present work, 〜 / In this study, 〜

     In this investigation, the prereacted compounds or precursors were wolframite, FeNbO4, and columbite, NiNb2O6.


本論文は〜>The present paper describes physical, electrical, and electrooptic properties of .

本質的に、〜>In essence, 〜   In essence both structures exhibit an fcc cation arrangement, but the A and B cations 〜

本質的に>Thus, in the case of smaller cations entering B-sites, the volumes of their BO6 octahedra are essentially determined by that of the AO12 cuboctahedra, i.e.Vb=Va/5.

     Second, tight packing of fibers within a woven fabric coupled with inherently poor meshing of tows between adjacent fabric layers leads to matrix pockets with widely different sizes.

本質的な>CMC performance is dictated by intrinsic properties of the constituent phases and by the degree of microstructural uniformity.

本時点では〜、時点、 この時点では〜>No explanation can be given at this time.

〜ほどの(程度の)〜>Since the Tm of PMN-PT is as low as 〜650℃, it can be expepected〜


他の場所で、〜>Further studies on this system are in progress and will be reported elsewhere.

    As demonstrated elsewhere,

他の>However, there are other significant factors such as impurities, heating rate, sintering time, grain size, grain boundary structure, stoichiometry of the perovskite phase and pyrochore distribution, which share responsibility in determining the dielectric response of the final sintered products.


    The other pellets sizes, 39 and 5.1mm diameters, showed similar levels of porosity, with lower values measured when the oxygen paXXX pressures during sintering were low.

本来>Essentially, 〜 

ほのめかす、暗示している>The textured samples were translucent, which implies clean grain boundaries and a high density.

          Although X-ray diffraction suggested the subsequent decomposition in air of Mn2O3 to Mn3O4 at 1000 degC, evidence of this decomposition could only be obtained in DTA for samples subjected to preheating in air for 24h at 650 degC.


補償される>For that model, the excess charge within the ordered domains must be compensated by a disordered matrix of equal and opposite charge.

    The higher dielectric constant of the hot-pressed material is compensated for in part by increased electromechanical coupling, making its use attractive for thin-section transducers in the 10 to 20 Mc per second range.


補色>Since blue is the complementary color to yellow, the samples are yellow.

補完的に>Complementary to the rapid fall in dT in manganese-substituted samples sintered in air is the rapid rise in T(er, max) observed in Fig.4.

膨大な量の〜>A great deal of effort has recently dedicated to the manufacturing and engineering of lead-containing relaxor perovskite compounds.

ほとんど完全な〜>The single crystal shows an almost perfectly linear strain-field response.

    The color of the CeO pigment is almost indistinguishable from the ideal yellow hue and its slightly reddish yellow color makes it suitable as a replacement for the traditional lead-containing yellow pigment used for Arita ware.

ほとんどの〜>Most XRD patterns were collected 〜

〜のほとんどは〜>Most of the templated PMN-PT grains contain a porous region near the center.

ポイントCでは、〜>At point C, 〜

〜の補助を受けて>Identification of crystalline phases was accomplished by X-ray diffraction, aided when necessary by selected-area electron diffraction (SAD).

ポーリング>This sample showed kp of 0.17 and d33 of 98pC/N measured by d33 meter, although our poling condition was not sufficient to reach the full poling state.

 that以下であることを保証するために>Prior to electroding, the sintered disks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to insure that little or no pyrochlore phase was present.

 施した>Electrodes of sputtered on gold air-dry silver were applied.

保持した>The molar Ce:Zr ratio was kept constant at 55:45 to give the deepest yellow hue while molar ratio of bismuth was increased from 0 to 23 mol%.

    The binder was burnt off at 500℃, this temperature being maintained for 60 min to ensure complete elimination of the binder.


方向>CeO has the highest b* value, which corresponds to the yellow component in the positive direction.

放置した後、>After leaving it at 298 K for 24 h, the Ce and Bi concentrations in the 4% acetic acid solution were measured by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy.

ボールミルした>Samples were ball milled in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with 3mm zirconia (Y-TZP) media for 16h, so that homogeneous mixing could be achieved.

保証する>The collection of layers must be designed to ensure thermochemical compatibility between layers and to mitigate stress resulting from thermal expansion mismatch.

〜ほどで>I'll catch up with you in ten minutes. 10分ほどで追いつくよ。

ほっとした、安堵した>In 1935 the agonies of working with this unstable complex crystal were partially relieved by the discovery of ferroelectrricity in the potassium dihydrogen phosphate family.

保存> The discs weight and dimensions were determined and kept immersed in phosphate buffer solution (pH7.3). 

保温> Cells were incubated in the presence of 2mm calcein AM and 4mm ethidium homodimer solution for 20 min, at 37 degC in the dark.

膨潤>However crosslinked collagen was stable in PBS and showed an uptake(摂取) of 800%.



>Cobalt-Doping of Lead Magnesium Niobium Titanate: Chemical Control of Dielectric Properties

>Dielectric Properties of Lead-Magnesium Niobate Ceramics Fabrication, Characterization and Formation Mechanism of PbMgNbO3 Pyrochlore

>New Evidence for Rhombohedral Symmetry in the Relaxor Ferroelectric PbMgNbO3

>Effect of Uniaxial Stress Upon the Electromechanical Properties of Various Piezoelectric Ceramics and Single Crystals

>Dielectric and piezoelectric response of lead zirconate-lead titanate at high electric and mechanical loads in terms of non-180 domain wall motion

>Growth of single crystals of PMN by the Kyropoulos technique

>Electrical properties of ferroelectric thin-film capacitors with hybrid (Pt,RuO2) electrodes for nonvolatile memory applications

>Metastability of the Fluorite, Pyrochlore, and Perovskite Structures in the PbO-ZrO2-TiO2

>System Poling of Lead Zirconate Titanate Ceramics and Flexible Piezoelectric Composites by the Corona Discharge Technique