原料は〜だった＞The raw material for the preparation of the CeTbO2 pigment was mixed oxide Tb4O7.
〜の純度は〜＞All oxides of lanthanides as starting compounds (CeO2, Tb4O7 and Ln2O3) were with a purity of 99.5% (Trading Bochemie, a.s.,CZ).
〜は粉砕した＞The starting mixtures containing all basic oxides (CeO2, Tb4O7 and Ln2O3, Ln=La, Y, Er, Dy, Ho, Yb, Lu and Tm) were homogenised in porcelain mortar.
固相反応で〜＞The pigments with formula CETbLnO were prepared by the solid state reaction.
〜は仮焼された＞The pigment mixtures containing the basic starting oxides (CeO2, Tb4O7 and Ln2O3) were calcinated at high temperature.
〜は〜によって合成された＞The CeTbLnO pigments were prepared by the classical dry process i.e. solid state reaction.
XRDは〜を使用した＞To study characteristics and microstructure of powders after calcination and the temperature effect in the inclusion process, samples were analyzed by a Philips PW 3710 computer assisted X-ray (CuKa) powder diffractometer.
SEMは〜を使用した＞SEM observations and EDS analysis by a Philips XL 40 scanning electron microscope, were done.
〜の効果を決定するために〜を使用した＞In order to determine the effects of the firing time and temperature on the color development of the samples, a UV-Vis spectrometer with analytical software for color measurements (PERKIN-ELMER mod. Lambda 19) was used.
〜は使用された＞Ball miling was used for all mixing and processing.
The weak-field measurements were taken with a HP computer.（用いた）
Many of today's multilayer ceramic capacitors employ costly precious metal internal electrodes.
The precursors were prepared by ball milling the appropriate amount of reagent grade oxides Fe2O3 or NiO with optical grade Nb2O5 in distilled water for 12 hours using zirconia milling media.
〜は用いられた（〜を用いた）＞A modified process was used to prepare〜
Density measurements were used to assess the 〜
The weak-field measurements were taken with HP computer.
the following approximation proposed by Tanaka was employed.
〜を用いた〜＞Transducers made using PZT fiber have prodeuced〜
用いた〜は、〜＞The sintering profile used is shown in Fig.1.
The furnace employed for the growth of PMN is 〜
The PLD system used for thin film growth has been〜
〜を用いて〜＞ST particles were synthesized using KCL as a flux.
Using this technique, we were able to detect〜 Using this information, 〜
Powder X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out on crushed sintered pellets, using a Siemens D500 X-ray
〜は分析された＞The calcined and sintered specimens were analyzed by X-ray diffraction〜.
〜の分析は〜＞Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that ceramics in the binary system PFN-PNN were single phase since a complete solid solution was formed for the whole range of binary compositions.
〜を調べた＞The structure of the prepared pigments was also investigated.
〜は測定された＞The color of pigments was measured in the visible region of light (400-700 nm) using ColorQuest XE (HunterLab, USA).
〜で調べた＞The pigments were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis.
〜を用いて得た＞The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples were obtained using by an equipment Diffractometer D8, CuKa radiation with scintillation detector.
測定条件は〜＞The measurement conditions were following: an illuminant D65, 10deg complementary observer and measuring geometry d/8deg.
2.3＜ その他 ＞
それは〜である＞It is a highly integrated laser measuring system (He-Ne laser, x=633 nm) for the analysis of particle size distribution.
〜は℃だった＞The calcination temperature range was from 1300 to 1600 degC.
〜は〜である＞In this system, L* is a degree of lightness and darkness of color in relation to scale extending from white (L*=100) to black (L*=0), the values a* [the green (-a*) to red (+a*) axis] and b* [the blue (-b*) to yellow (+b*) axis] indicate the color hue.
〜は〜に依存している＞The color hue of pigment depends on the terbium content.
The color of pigment depends on the terbium content, temperature of calcination and on the way of application, too.
〜の間に、〜＞During the high-temperature calcination (1300-1600 degC), terbium ions enter the CeO2 and forming CeTbO2 solid solution.
〜で記述した＞The color properties are described in terms of CIE L*a*b* system (1976).
〜は〜で保持した＞The calcination temperature of 1300, 1400, 1500 and 1600 degC were maintained for 1 hour.
〜は〜を示している＞The value C (chroma) represents saturation of the color and is calculated according to the formula: C=A+B
C represents saturation〜. とC is calculated according to the 〜fの２文を一つにまとめた表現。
２文をまとめた例文＞The pigments created by the solid solution CeTbO2 and is produced during high-temperature calcination (>1300degC), i.e. when the terbium oxide is dissolved in CeO2.
The pigment created 〜.+ The pigment is produced〜.
〜の式は〜である＞The equation for calculation of the hue angle is H=arc tg (b*/a*).
〜の粒子分布は〜＞The distribution of particle sizes of the calcinated powders was obtained by laser scattering using Mastersizer 2000/MU (Malvern Instruments, GB).
〜の作用を受ける＞Each of mixtures was submitted to calcination in corundum crucibles in an electric resistance furnace with heating rate 7 degC min-1.
釉をかけた＞The mixture of pigment in amounts of 10% w/w and glaze was glazed at 1000degC and the temperature was held for 15 min.
〜に混ぜた（供給）＞In this manner, prepared pigments were applied into organic matrix (Balakom, a.s.,CZ) in a mass tone and into the ceramic glaze G05091.
〜は表現される＞The color of pigments is also expressed by the hue angle H defined by an angular position in the cylindrical color space (for the red is H=0-35deg, for the orange H=35-70, for the yellow H=70-105).
〜というのは〜（which文）＞Pigments with supporting structure of the fluotrite lattice CeO2 and ions of terbium which work like a chromophore and look as promising. 下線部というのは、〜
〜は代表する（代表的である）＞the pigments based on CeO2 represent new special inorganic pigments with high-temperature stability.
〜をとることが出来る＞Terbium ions are available in two oxidation state in this mixed Tb4O7, i.e. 2TbO2.Tb2O3.
〜を〇時間、○分どうした＞These precursors were mixed in a planetary ball mill for 20 minutes in acetone media.
All mixed samples were calcined at 1150 degC for 30 min by applying heat at a rate of 4 deg/min.
TEOS was then added and prehydrolished for 2 hours.
Then the resulting slurry was transferred into a Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave and maintained at 180 degC for 16-36 h.
〜を〇度でどうした＞Long soaking time were performed at temperatures of 300, 600,700,900,and 1300 degC.
〜for firing temperatures in the 1150-1250 degC range.