We have not been informed any news relating to the problem.


The ferroelectric to paraelectric transition is second order and as a result is broad in respect to temperature.

   The final glaze were evaluated in terms of their color hue by the CIE L*a*b* system with a colorimeter.

   Thus, in terms of ionic radius alone, Mn2+ ions would be expected to have a slightly expansionary effect on the crystal structure, with Mn3+ ions a rather more dramatic effect in reducing the size of the unit cell.

As for supplies, the U.S. is totally dependent on imports.

        Regarding film deposition techniques, 

        For the InP/Si substrates used for the growth of InGaAs solar cells, 

The above results, concerning lattice parameters, densification and dielectric properties, show great sensitivity to whether samples are sintered in air or in CO2.

The chemistry has been widely interpreted in terms of a compositionally model.

       In light of these considerations it can be easily concluded that +文.


       from a technical standpoint [viewpoint, perspective, point of view]

       from a technologic(al) standpoint [viewpoint, perspective, point of view]


       Let's look at this issue from a more practical point of view.

                    環境保護の観点から> from the viewpoint of environmental protection

                     衛生の観点から> from the hygienic point of view

   The hot pressing of ceramics from the practical and theoretical point of view has been discussed by Marray, Livey, and Willims.


be related to 〜  Nobody knows that I'm related to that robbery.


       Both the sintering and grain growth behavior were correlated to the presence of pyrochlore in the reactively calcined powders.

       The electrically-induced strain is related to the electrostrictive coefficient 

       The reversible Rayleigh coefficients are associated with the intrisic contributions.

The generally higher values of Er,max in CO2-sintered samples are clearly connected with their polarization cluster type of structure, in comparison to the macroscopic ferroelectric domain structure proposed for air-sintered samples.

   Even when total fiber surface area bonded to neighboring fibers appears small, the contiguity of bonded fibers can lead to highly correlated fiber fractures.

    PCR is performed to analyze genes related to HLC and to HEC.


The relationship between V90 and prestress sholud resemble〜

                  Figure 2 shows the relationship between Tc's (at various frequencies) as a function of the composition.


Fig.3 Relationship between precursor particle diameter and Er concentration in starting solution containing 0.20M precursor and 0.10M PVA

Figure 8(a) and 8(b) show polarization versus electric field and strain versus electric field curves when the material is cycled between 0 and +2MV/m at 0,20,50,100, and 175MPa prestress values.

〜がある、There is 文 >

     In addition, it is important to mention here that there is no polar microregion for PIN in the studied temperature range.(文中のthere is 文)

    There are likely to be two possible mechanisms for this conduction.(〜があるという there is 文)

    However, there are other significant factors such as impurities, heating rate, sintering time, which share responsibility in determining the dielectric response of the final sintered products.

    Although photoluminescence (PL) technique is a very useful tool for studying phase transitions, there are no reports on the PL as well as its field dependence in the PMN-PIN system.(〜だけども、〜に関する報告はないという文例)

     There is a UFA bank on the corner. そのかどにUFA銀行がある

     There are equal amounts of positive and negative charge on each surface.

< 〜と考えられる、〜かもしれない >

〜と考えられる。that以下であるように考えられる。>It seem
s that + 文.

      It seems that PZT is used for piezoceramics.

     同類、発展形) This indicates that 〜, This means that 〜, This results suggest that 〜, etc.


     This problem need more investigation and is still open to discuss.


that以下であると考えられる。>It is believed that this
 transition occurs at 〜

This is believed to be due to the reduction in the volume of reduced layer.

It is likely that there is positional disorder of the lead ions.

Some subsequent formation of Mn2+ within the perovskite phase is also conceivable.

重要ではないと考えられる細部 a detail that is considered insignificant


〜と考えられている。>It is considered that 〜, It is thought that〜

KNN solid solution has been considered a good candidate for lead-free piezoelectric ceramics because of its strong piezoelectricity.

The effective surface tensional stress are believed to play an important role.

〜考えられる(推定される)>It may be suspected that +文    It is suspected that +文

The behavior of the PMN and PMT-substituted system can be interpreted using similar arguments.

    〜have been interpreted as due to a lack of long range order or to the presence of either static disorder/short range order.

    These have been interpreted in terms of the presence of Mn3+ and Mn2+ ions, together with oxygen vacancies. Mn3+ ions are considered to be responsible for a transition between relaxor and normal ferroelectric properties.


The covalency of the Ta and Nb cations also must be considered.(〜も考えなければならない)

This theory was conceived long before the neutron studies of Bacon and Pease, which completely confirmed the basic hypothesis.

that以下だろう (should=すべきである、だろ う、のはずだ、>

     One should consider the possibility that the pyrochlore-like ordering 

This could be due to the lack of available liquid-phase material.

     This might be due to larger columbite crystals in the starting materials.

At room temperature the yellow PbO is metastable and may transform to the stable red PbO on grinding.

高精度に製作が可能である>Thereby manufacturing is easy and it can be manufactured accurately.

that以下は可能である>It is possible that〜

It is possible that the lead and calcium titanates, present only in these two formulations, require an oxidizing atmosphere to displace the barium in the lattice.

It is possible that the liquid-phase components melt at a higher temperature in a nonoxidizing atmosphere and this may lead to only partial production of the liquid phase material and increased levels of porosity due to the open pore network being maintained.

Due to the fine size of the template particles, it was possible to obtain textured ceramics without the use of excess PbO or without extensive matrix grain growth.

    Thus, it is possible to develop an amplitude dependent d coefficient ( with associated ) even if only 180 deg domain wall motion is present.

Minor substitutions of Ba2+ for Pb2+ in PMN-PT solid solutions allowed the formation of fine-grained pyrochlore^free perovskite materials.

   The remaining four beams were notched to a depth of approximately 1.4mm (40% of the depth) to enable fracture toughness to be evaluated.


These results indicate that the systems may provide a possible substitute for the lead based piezoelectrics.

it is very important to depress this phase transition temperature from room temperature to as low as possible.

   Considering the difference in the color coordinates between Table 2 and Table 3, it is preferable that the a* value of the pigment powder is as positively large as possible, because it is decreased significantly after overglazing.

その犬は暴れる可能性がある。There is a possibility that the dog will be violent.


< 確認された、観察された、分かった >

〜が(特性が)確認された、調べられた >
〜 were characterized by〜

     The spectrum of NO3 in water is characterized by a weak maximum at 

This was also confirmed by XRD taken from both sides of the peak.

   One approach is to use experimental observations of crack patterns to guide FE simulations of energy release rates and mode mixities and to use these results to identify conditions under which a specific mode might develop.

that以下ということを確認した>Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that ceramics in the binary system PFN-PNN were single phase since a complete solid solution was formed for the whole range of binary compositions.

           It also confirmed that the perovskite structure was obtained without any secondary phase.

      All off-stoichiometric perovskites in Fig.1 were confirmed to be single phase by TEM/SAD, e.g., Fig.2.


      It is confirmed that 〜、It was confirmed that〜は、日本人英文なので使わないこと。「〜は確認された」ではなく、「〜を確認した」にする。

      The detection via DSC confirms X-ray results. 「DSCによる検出」はエックス線結果を裏付ける。

       X-ray results are confirmed by detection via DSC. エックス線結果は「DSCによる検出によって」裏付けられた。

       →エックス線結果を 強調したい時は受動態を使うと良い。

The material was shown to exhibit a quadratic electro-optic effect and a second order transition.(示す >発現する)

      Microstructures of sintered pellets were examined by SEM.

Perovskite was observed for the base powder.

   Mixes 1 and 2 were observed to contain harder agglomerates (possibly due to the absence of lead and calcium titanates) and the effect of this was to increase green porosity and reduce strength.

Only two exothermic peaks were seen in CMN.

that以下が観察された>It was observed that
 the intensity increased with increasing La-content〜

The observed ac field amplitude dependence ( nonlinearity ) of the piezoelectric response is often attributed to 〜

From the SEM observation, although a smooth surface can be seen for the Ti metal reagent perticles, it is found that submicron-sized nanoparticles cover the surface of the Ti metal particles after the hydrothermal treatment.

確認をした所 after checking

From 〜, 〜    From a plot of log t vs 1/T, 〜      From this figure Ps and Pr can be obtained to be 30 and 37 mC/cm2.respectively.

The dielectric loss magnitude increases from 7.8% to 12.4%.

   Weight loss data of all samples sintered at temperatures from 1200 to 1300 degC for 2h are shown in Fig.3.

   However, its color was changed from red to yellow. ただし、色は赤色から黄色に変化している。


the content of hematite added was of 5-15wt%.

Measurements of complex impedance were carried out for the frequency range 100 Hz-1MHz at temperatures between -55 and 150℃

This is a significant volume change that may translate into either porosity or residual stresses in a precursor-derived film. as noted elsewhere.

A secondary question is whether this symmetry can be regarded as macroscopic or whether it is confined to polar clusters within a matrix of cubic symmetry.

二番目の質問は、この対照性がマクロスコピックであると考え られるのかどうか、又は、立方晶対照性のマトリックス内にお ける極性クラスターに限定されるのかどうかである。

The pattern was obtained with 〜 〜を使ってそのパターンを得た。

      The pattern was obtained for 〜 〜についてそのパターンを得た。

      The pattern was obtained from 〜 

      PMN pyrochlore was produced from solid state reaction of mixed oxide powders and via a simple partial oxalate method with no need for pH control or expensive starting materials

Previous studies concerned with the dielectric properties of PMN-based solid solution have

functionally-related gene 機能的に関連した遺伝子

   The reversible Rayleigh coefficients are associated with the intrisic contributions.

   The dates associated with some of these early studies are summarized in Table II.

In connection with the second question, it is appropriate to 

This is of relevance to the continued development of dielectric ceramics which can be co-sintered with base metal electrodes.

   As expected, a strong correlation was found with lower porosity levels associated with the higher strengths.

The physiological significance was discussed from the standpoint of the control of asparatate biosynthesis.

   It is interesting from the viewpoint of comparative biochemistry.

The compositions were subjected to a profile〜

PZT ceramics and piezoelectric composites are poled in an oil bath by applying a large dc electric field.

Instead, 〜 通常文頭、文尾で用いる  Instead, he told nothing. その代わりに、彼は何も話さなかった。

The binary materials precipitated PbTi3O7, instead of the equilibrium rutile.

the condition could be due to oxygen ion conduction, which should be greater in the CO2-sintered sample because of the expected higher concentration of oxygen vacancies compared to corresponding air-sintered material.

   Alternatively, a more fundamental approach that incorporates cohesive traction between elements and allows explicit tracking of cracks could be used.

   Alternative approaches in which coating architecture is used in conjunction with a small set of constituent materials may prove to be more effective.

Equation is derived by assuming a two-dimensional lattice〜

    When we assume that the grain are tetragonal, the width of 〜

     Assuming the porosity is not interconnected, we have〜

Assuming that the excess Pb is indeed in solid solution, one can〜

that以下と仮定すると>Assuming that,
 in CO2-sintered ceramics, all manganese ions are in the +2 oxidation state, the B-ion radius is predicted to increase from 66.675 to 66.67 pm between the undoped and 10 mol% doped samples, an increase of a mere 0.05%.

Mg and Nb were assumed to occupy the B sites randomly in a 1:2 ratio.

that以下であると推定(仮定)した>It is presumed that
 the domain wall can be moved nearly reversibly by the alternating field.

This postulated dependence of manganese oxidation state on sintering conditions provides the key to rationalising the observed differences in properties between samples sintered in air and in CO2.

Based on this assumption, 〜

   Values of a and b are pressure dependent and, on the assumption that a and b vary linearly with pressure (P), equation (4) becomes.

These suppositions concerning the different effects of Mn2+ and Mn3+ substitution are consistent with the crystal chemistry and properties of other ferroelectric perovskite systems.

In spite of having a high texture fraction, the sample have〜

    In spite of(〜にもかかわらず) the acceptable mechanical performance of the collagen-cellulose nanocomposites, in simulated body conditions, the cross linking agent (gluteraldehyde) used resulted in cytotoxicity.


     Despite this demonstrated potential, the wide variety of potential〜 (DespiteはIn spite of よりも堅い表現)

              Despite the optimistic outlook, significant technical challenges remain for CMCs.

     Despite the relative maturity of the pattern-making technology, 

     Regardless of the distribution of the Tb cations in the structure, the wide variety of potential〜

     Notwithstanding the positive identification of the ordering reflections in Fig.2 as consistent with pyrochlore, one should note that 

〜であるにもかかわらず、〜 〜であるけども、〜>
Even though copper should be sufficiently 〜,additional measures were taken to

   In simulated body conditions (95% RH and 37decC), the strength and nodulus decreased compared to the dry samples, whereas the strain at break increased.


Much attention has been paid to the alkaline niobates, and in particular to the potassium sodiumu niobate family, (KNN)

彼は芸術に関心がない.He has no interest in art.

彼は自分の子供達にほとんど関心がない。He has very little interest in his children.

彼はそれに関心が無いように見えます。He looks as though he has no interest in that.

Much recent work in Japan has been concerned with the exploration of such systems.

   Much work has concentrated on the effects of chemical additions to produce desired electrical properties, interest in mechanical properties has lagged somewhat behind.

the near MPB composition corresponding to 0.8BNT-0.18BKT was processed and evaluated.

The dielectric properties of the PMN ceramics 
was examined as function of frequency and temperature.

      principal functions of education (教育の主要な役割)

       Figure 1 shows the dielectric behavior as a function of temperature for various composition across the PFN-PNN binary system.

   The band-gap energies of the samples were determined from the absorption edge of the absorbance spectra represented by the Kublka-Munk function, f(R)=xxx, where R is reflectance.


,大幅に>Moreover, attempts to refine site occupancy factors did not lead to significantly improved agreement indices.

   The final density obtained was, of course, considerably higher than that observed for air sintering of the material.

The sun is much larger than the moon.

This is considerably lower than Ts.

La was compensated by changing the B-site cations ratio.

The situation was improved by taking into account the effect 〜

                  For both firing conditions shown in Fig.3, a very large increase in resistivity was found for additions of MnO as low as 0.005wt% with further improvements being realized with increasing amounts of MnO.

   Improvements in the performance of these devices are generally measured in terms of enhanced electrical behaviour.

   The piezoelectric characteristics are enhanced by hot pressing..

The improvement in the properties is due to the increases in density and the uniform grain size of the hot-pressed materials.

   Reduction in safety factors translate directly into realizable performance improvements.

Films were grown at temperatures from 500 to 700 ℃, in steps of 50℃, as well as at 575 and 625℃.

     completely / 完全に perfectly

The single crystal shows an almost perfectly linear strain-field response.

               The relationship was found not to be linear as one would expect for a complete solid solution system.

Further work is necessary to clarify this issue.

Hence, for simplicity, the discussion is limited to the competition 〜

   These were easier, more symmetric crystals to work with, but with ferroelectricity confined to temperatures below -150 degC.

簡単に       simply / こつこつと、入念に diligently

A schematic of PZT capasitors with this typebottom hybrid electrode was shown in Fig.1.

    Fig.2 Schematic diagram on crystal structure of  Fig.1 Schematic illustration of optical setup in THz-TDS apparatus.

    The schematic representation of the process is given in Figure 2.

Procedures established in the cited study to avoid this problem were followed in the present work.

ごみを回収する  to collect trash

By convention, the acoustic energy density can be defined as 

 these conditions, 〜

The probable reaction sequence in the mixed oxide can be written as follows: A+B=C

It is worthwhile thinking about the types

It should be mentioned that through the diffused E maxima and relaxor-type behavior were reported in some NaNbO3-BaTiO3 solid solution ceramics, the relaxor-like compositions belong to the BaTiO3-rich side of this system and are therefore out of scope of the present work.

The theory can easily be extended so as to include the case of nonequivalent protons.

         further expand service areasサービスエリアをさらに拡大する

be in the form of triglycerides ( トリグリセリドの型をとっている )

Since such additions are typically small, e.g., 0.01wt%, the MnO was added in the form of a water solution containing MnSO4xH2O and during the milling process.

In this method, both sample sides should be electroded and poling is limited to samples of small area.

The butyl group is a useful carboxyl-protecting group because it is easily cleaved by acids.

A straightforward assessment of the level of frequency dispersion is provided by the parameter, as previously employed.

a simple dress(簡素なドレス)、To perform a proper sounding driving with a simple constitution (簡素な構成で適切な発音駆動を行うこと)

To correct the skew of recording materials arranged in parallel and conveyed credibly in a short time.

The binder was burnt off at 500℃ and this temperature was maintained for 60min to ensure the complete elimination of the binder.

概略的に、図式的に     schematically

外部からの、外的な、偶然の extrinsic

賢い smart 

Steam also can lead to internal oxidation, which can be highly localized and difficult to detect externally.

Sealing of the external surfaces can be delayed through the use of low deposition rates and pressure and temperature gradients.

 this result can be achieved〜

The electrical resistivity (p) was determined by applying 100V across selected samples at room temperature using a pico-ampmeter, with the current value being recorded after 1 minute.

As the grain size increases, the number of boundaries increases with the grain decreases, and the large dielectric constant of the grains would become less affected by a low dielectric constant grain boundary.

   During the decade the number of ferroelectric families increased from three to twenty-five.

A stoichiometric mixture of 1mol Ce, 1mol Zr, and 0.5mol Bi aqueous solutions was mixed with a 1mol citric acid solution.

 Fibers should be stoichiometric to achieve high-temperature stability and retain high strength after exposure at elevated temperatures.

The solid obtained was dried at 403 K for 1 h and successively calcined 1273 K for 1 h.

    These films are dried completely by keeping in a vacuum oven for 12h at 35 degC.

The color properties of the samples were estimated in terms of the CIE L*a*b* system using a colorimeter (Konika-Minolta, CR-300).

With a voltage in an 'OFF' state, energy levels of a conduction band 24 and a valence band 25 are in a state of (a).


Although the sample with a composition of CeO exhibited the highest absorption at long wavelength, the optical reflection in the visible region decreases in this sample due to the presence of Bi2O3 as an impurity.

This is also important in a general way because several conventional industrial pigments such as chrome yellow, cadmium yellow, and cadmium red contain toxic elements such as Pb, Cr, Cd, and Se and no potential substitutes for these pigments have been found.

The developed collagen-cellulose nanocomposite with genipin as well as gluterladehyde crosslinking are stronger than natural ligaments and tendons and show comparable elongation to tendons, but lower than for ligaments.


触媒活性の高い光触媒を提供することにある。To provide a photocatalyst with high catalytic activity.

Two issues remain:(i) the cross-over in T(er,max)-curves for CO2-and air-sintered samples at a manganese concentration of approximately 7 mol%; and (ii) the generally higher values of Er,max observed in CO2-sintered samples.

   One of the most critical issues in tissue engineering is the development of materials with specific physical, mechanical, and biological properties.


問題、課題がある> 課題がある

Some people think that such zones of Doburoku have problems and 〜

I think there are a lot of issues with that.

It is also of interest to determine whether the postulated ferroelectric domains in the air-sintered samples really exist.

 evidence for these would be found by an investigation of the hysteresis behaviour of the samples lo remains to be investigated, with a view to their being piezoelectric materials of high activity.

The two curves tend towards convergence as [Mn] reaches 10 mol%.

画像分析>Image analysis
 of SEM-micrographs revealed differences in both grain-size and porosity between the x=0.0112 and x=0.10 compositions sintered inCO2, corresponding to the maximum and minimum observed densities.

This is due to high sintering temperatures required, typically above 1000 degC, where the degree of PbO volatilisation affects the stoichiometry of the product by forming a pyrochlore, as well as a perovskite phase.

One another front, researchers also are pursing approaches for accelerating crystallization of precursor-derived SiC matrices.

   Beginning with the pioneering work on Rochelle salt and potassium dihydrogen phophate, the study of ferroelectrics acceleratedrapidly during World War II with the discovery of barium titanate.

 approaches to modeling inelastic and fracture properties of CMCs can be distinguished on the basis of length scales associated with the phenomena of interest and complexity of fiber architectures, structural geometries, and loading strates.

   The strength was established using diametral compression of discs and bend tests on relatively small beam samples.


Under monotonic tensile loading at ambient or elevated temperatures, surfaces exhibit extensive fiber pullout (reflecting the stochastic nature of fiber fracture) and small fracture mirrors (reflecting high fiber strength).

The problem can be mitigated using environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) on CMC components.

Low porosity also leads to high in-plane and interlaminar strength as well as improved protection of fibers from the environment.

 crystallization generally requires heat treatment at temperatures that treatment at temperatures that exceed those at which most fibers are processed (e.g., 1400-1600).

Otherwise, if molten silicon cannot gain access to carbon, free silicon will remain upon completion of the process.

The problem involves reaction of water vapor silicon-containing compounds to form gaseous hydroxide species.





It was a real sorrow for piezoelectric and ferroelectric communities that on December 9, 1974, Walter Cady died only one day short of his 100th birthday, and of the many tributes which were being formulated to mark that auspicious occasion.

Perhaps more than anyone, Walter Cady deserves credit for melding science and technology in the unique way which led to the development of the piezoelectrically stabilized resonator.

Cady's career is a direct negation of the hypothesis by the young and arrogant that scientist's productive life is over by age thirty.

感謝している>The authors also thank 
Dr X and X and other colleagues from the XX for many stimulating discussions.

   The authors would also like to thank Dr Allak and other colleagues from the Applied Physics Division of the XXXXXX for many stimulating discussions.

An Instron 1000 testing machine provided the loading through a 5kN load cell at a speed of 2 mm minx.

At time t=0, D=D0 (the initial relative density of the material in the die) C, the constant of integration, therefore equals in (1-D0).

The“green”pellets were sintered in a range of gaseous atmospheres in a tube furnace.

Having established these as suitable conditions for hot pressing this composition, it was relatively simple to prepare high-density specimens of other potassium-sodium niobate compositions by adjusting the temperature to conform to their air-sintering behavior.

To simplify the equation. K may be substituted for 3/4 and, at the same time, factors required for the use of logs to base 10, pressure in pounds per square inch, and time in minutes incorporated in this K value, so that and the final equation becomes.

Liser and Whittle, found that large soft agglomerates containing less eccentric particles produced the strongest “green”pellets.

Radial cracks were evident at pressures in excess of 200MPa, which is consistent with observations by Youhaw and Hallo.

     because of containing surplus ZnO(ZnOを過剰に含むことにより)

     This solution contains an excess amount of amine

A number of important studies have also been made on preparation methodology.

The green pellets were sintered in air in a tube furnace.


Collagen phase is crosslinked using genipin, a bio-based crosslinker that introduces flexible cross links.

The samples were in the form of strips(外形) about 6 mm width and 50 mm length.

Nanofibres suspensions (1wt%) were throughly mixed with collagen suspension (0.5%) in acetic acid and stirred overnight at room temperature to obtain a homogeneous mixture.

These materials were studied further after sterilization to further explore their potential in medical applications.

The appearance of the prototypes are shown in Figure 10.

1つのスクリーンセルに複数個のスクリーン核を形成する初期過程では規則性を持たない成長手法を実行する。A growth method without regularity is executed in an initial process for forming a plurality of screen in one screen cell 

進化の過程において重要な標本 An Important Specimen in the Process of Evolution

材木の価格 the price of timber 提示価格 an offered price



Full details of the techniques employed have been described previously.

彼は何が起きたかを正確に記述した.He described exactly what had happened.

The present paper describes physical, electrical, and electrooptic properties of .

      〜 reduce the substrate cost, as described below. (以下に記述したように〜)

Experimental details have been discussed elswhere, 〜

      〜, as discussed here.

   Before discussing the evolution of the technology of piezoelectric ceramics, it is important to reiterate the difficulty of establishing clearly the priorities, and to apologize if someone who had a key but largely "concealed" role because of the proprietary nature of commercial development has been inadvertently omitted from consideration.

This will be discussed later.

, and hence, it is not discussed further in this paper.


that以下が期待できる>Since Tm is low, it can be expected that

Here no direct oxidation to Mn2O3 is expected, so that any Mn3+ ions the final product would either be by direct oxidation within the perovskite phase, or alternatively via MnO.Mn2O3 as an intermediate.

that以下が期待されている、期待された>It is expected that
 the criteria would〜.

                               It was expected that the criteria would〜

This research is expected to be applied to assist with devices for patients(この研究は患者の補助装置などへの応用が期待される

      The discovery is expected to be used in the treatment of the obesity.(その発見は糖尿病治療への応用が期待される)

As expected, 〜

Relaxors have attracted a considerable amount of 〜

Perovskite solid solutions in the PMN-PT are known to exhibit excellent dielectric properties and currently of interest as materials for multilayer capacitors.

    Also, in recent years there has been specific interest in developing biomaterial scaffolds(足場) that support cell growth and can be biosorbed once the regeneration of the tissue occurs.


It is also of interest to determine whether the postulated ferroelectric domains in the air-sintered samples really exist.

Piezoelectric properties of BNT are very 
interesting and it has been projected as the key non-lead material.

          It is interesting to note that compositions near to PFN showed virtually no relaxational character, but with increasing amounts of PNN, the dielectric maximums decreased and showed more and more frequency dispersion.

   It is interesting to note that the domain structure was on a scale entirely unexpected by the original investigators and, though it is quite obvious when the (100) surface is viewed in polarized light, it was not until considerably later, after the methods had been well established for the perovskites, that domain structures were observed optically in Rochelle Salt.


High-density ceramics within the system lithium-sodium niobate ( a partial phase diagram for which is shown in Fig.1 ) support high sound velocities and exhibit electromechanical properties of interest for high-frequency filter applications.

   Whereas, in general, the weight loss increases with sintering temperature, it is interesting to note that the level of lead loss can be effectively minimised by the use of platinum foil and PMN atmosphere powder.


The demand for lead-free ceramics has grown considerably in the last decade.(ここ十年の間に)

       近年> in recent years

       in the last few years>過去2、3年に

       in the past few years>過去2、3年に

       over the last few years> 過去2、3年にわたって

       over the past few years> 過去2、3年にわたって

       Since〜> 〜以来

Weight loss due to PbO volatility was limited to less than 1%.

This can be attributed to differences in the 

    Clearly, it is shown that MnO additions reduce dielectric loss, particularly the low frequency losses which are attributed to conduction processes.

    The small amount of pyrochlore formed in PMN ceramics sintered at 1200℃ could be attributed to many factors, 〜


    The authors attributed the observed nonlinearity to the motion of non-180 deg domain walls.


   This relaxor characteristic has been attributed to a statistical inhomogeneity in the distribution of the B-site cations creating microregions of varying transition temperatures (Tc).

   This relatively small discrepancy can be attributed to inaccuracies in the assumed ionic radius and/or non-random substitution of Mn2+ ions over B-sites, with investigation of these factors outside the scope of this article. Of more significance, however, is the absence of a marked decrease in a0 with increasing manganese substitution in air-sintered samples: a0=404 for x=0 and 404 pm for x=0.01, with intermediate values of up to 404 pm.

   Since this is most evident at lower frequency, it is likely to be attributable to a thermally activated conduction process.


High dielectric and piezoelectric properties are essential criterion for selection of the material.

      For many applications, the high electromechanical coupling and large mechanical quality factors offered by these materials have been the main criteria for a good device material.

Also in Table I are the temperature coefficients of the dielectric constant at -30 degC,10 degC, and 85 degC with reference to the value at 25 degC.

急に、くっきりと sharply / 明確に、はっきりと specifically / はっきりと significantly 

   To date, 〜 / 次の30年において   In the next three decades,〜

To serve as a substrate for nucleation and growth of the desired phase, the template〜.

Phase and attenuation od S were recorded at 10 GHz for each temperature.

Thus, by recording the weights of the pellets before and after sintering, the level of PbO loss may be calculated for each sample.

His ballistic galvanometer studies of the charge and discharge of carefully prepared X-cut Rochelle Salt crystals clearly demonstrated for the first time the hysteritic nature of the polarization and its marked dependence on temperature.

   It is interesting to note that in the first dielectric studies two Curie points were recorded (this was expected for ferroelectrics) but very quickly the lower "change" was shown to be a domain effect and the polarization Ps to persist down to very low temperatures.


The binary complex is quit stable at ph 9.

   Early thinkers speculated that the matter was made up of extremely small particles.

   However it was Jaffe's recognition that the temperature-independent morphotoropic boundary in PZT allowed one to stay close change over the whole temperature course of the poling process which was of vital importance.


The behavior of the PMN and PMT-substituted system can be interpreted using similar arguments.

          Figure 1 shows the dielectric behavior as a function of temperature for various composition across the PFN-PNN binary system.

            A similar behavior was observed with sintering time.

     This behavior was also observed by Yonezawa, et al. in the PFW-PFN system and by Swartz, et al. in PMN.

However, the question remains as to whether the cation order in the niobates can be altered by thermal treatment.

疑問は>The question is
 relevant, however, to the control of second phase formation.

Films were grown at temperatures from 500 to 700 ℃, in steps of 50℃, as well as at 575 and 625℃.

急激に>All compositions showed a steady increase in longitudinal strain with decreasing temperature and an abrupt increase in the strain hysteresis at a well-defined temperature.


In essence,     In essence both structures exhibit an fcc cation arrangement, but the A and B cations 

 of these domains results in an increase of P and e as〜

強調している>This underscores the fact that
 both single and polycrystalline forms of PMN-30%PT have similar acoustic energy densities for t=600 N/m2.(これはthat以下であるという事実を強調している。)

Over the next ten years, the major developmental emphasis was with the lead zirconate-lead titanate solid solution ceramics, and the major center for this activity was certainly the Clevite Company (a development from the old Brush group).

Emphasis has been placed on assessing changes in the mechanical properties of the material.

Disk-shaped samples for dielectric measurement of thickness 1.5 mm were sawn from sintered pellets.

共通の common

逆に、対照的に Conversely,〜

基本的な fundamental

For many applications, the high electromechanical coupling and large mechanical quality factorsoffered by these materials have been the main criteria for a good device material.

It may be better to improve an existing system than try to create something else.


                 existing PC(既存のPC)


      The distance between the positive electrode/negative electrode becomes shorter and the dispersion of lithium ion becomes rapid, and the electro- conductivity of positive electrode is improved, so that the current concentration can be prevented


              in astronomy, a unit of measurement of length equal to the average distance between the sun and the earth

The molar Ce:Zr ratio was kept constant at 55:45 to give the deepest yellow hue while the ratio of bismuth was increased from 0 to 23 mol%.

The band-gap energies of the samples were determined from the absorption edge of the absorbance spectra represented by the Kublka-Munk function, f(R)=xxx, where R is reflectance.

The absorption-edge wavelength depends critically on the bismuth content.

The band-gap energies of the samples were determined from the absorption edge of the absorbance spectrarepresented by the Kublka-Munk function, f(R)=xxx, where R is reflectance.

Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital

These primary particles aggregate to form secondary particles, which have an average size of about 0.68 mm; this is nearly one third of the size of the secondary particles in the commercial praseodymium yellow pigment.

Successful pressing depends on powder agglomerate size and hardness, and on the characteristics and speed of the die.

The mixture was mechanically mixed using a motor grinder for 10 min to prepare overglazed enamels.

   The formulations for the main part of this investigation were the same as those used for a more detailed study of mechanicalproperties reported recently.

In air, a rapid transition from relaxor to normal ferroelectric properties takes place upon addition of manganese.

Then came a period of rapid proliferation with more than 100 new ferroelectrics identified in the next decade, including lead zirconate titanate, the most widely used piezoelectric transducer.

The local environments of the B-ions in the presence of oxygen vacancies remain to be investigated, by techniquessuch as EXAFS, EELS and MASNMR.

This can be attributed to the immediate existence of sufficient numbers of Mn(III)O6-dipoles.

近似した数値 the numerical value of an approximation

The two curves tend towards convergence as [Mn] reaches 10 mol%.

The second route provides infiltration of particle slurries into dry fiber preforms via immersion or pressure-assisted routes that produce green preforms with particle packing densities of 50%-60%.

Siliceous debris commonly ingested into turbine engines can produce molten deposits of calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS)

The samples used for sorption studies were circular discs 20 mm in diameter, cut from films conditioned at 5% relative humidity.


For example, laminates with uniformly separated fibers invariably outperform with 2-D fiber weaves.

Finite-element simulations in which the tows are explicitly represented have been used to identify locations and magnitudes of stress elevations by the fiber weave and the ensuing strength debit.

EBCs can develop a multitude of damage modes, including channeling cracks, cracks that kink or bifurcate at or near layer interfaces, delamination cracks, and, in extreme cases, wholesale spallation.

Such features can include oddly shaped pores, splat boundaries, multiphase constituents, and columnar grains.

The stimulating competition between Ray Pepinsky and his group at Penn State and Berndt Mattias and his coworkers at Bell Telephone did much to enlarge the number of known ferroelectric families in the 1950s.

These studies were to lead later to the firm establishment of the term ferroelectricity to describe this set of phenonema.

In highlighting the Rohelle Salt era, we have of course emphasized the very important role of studies here in the United States during this formative period.

There was at that time clear realization of the value of proximity to a phase change in facilitating poling.

With the entrepreneurial skill of Sawyer, and the engineering expertise of Williams, the Rochelle Salt bimorph "benders and twisters" were to evolve into one of the most profitable product lines for the Brush Development Company.

It was not, however, until the very clear demonstration of pure piezoelectricity in untwinned barium titanate single crystals by Caspari and Merz that the controversy was effectively resolved.

After 1940, in the postperovskite era, it appears that the developments fall rather neatly into four decade-long periods.

Further in ceramic substrates, metallic interconnect circuitry, and ceramic resistors.

This was attributed to the differing pressures developed by the die on the powder during compaction.

The test apparatus was computer controlled with nine stations for samples housed in an insulated thermal cabinet.

The very limited date suggest an aging rate of about 0.86% per decade for dielectric constant and 0.15% per decade for resonant frequency.

It was also noted that the grains of material following sintering in nitrogen appeared more spherical, which could lead to a reduction in their packing efficiency.

The action of sintering increases the density of a component by reducing the size of the pores initially present within the structure and brings about controlled grain growth.

As such, the service life of components made from these materials can be suspect if premature mechanical failures occur.

The natural rubber containing ?0.05 wt.% foreign matters prescribed in JIS K 6352 is used. JIS K 6352に規定するゴミ量の値が0.05重量%以下である天然ゴムを用いる。

Collagen used in this study was kindly supplied by ISTEC, Italy, in the form of collagen suspension of 1wt% in acetic acid medium with a pH of 3.5.

The suspensions were casted on Petri dishes and dried at 35 degC for 24h to obtain flat films which were subsequently treated with saturated solution of NaCl for 3h and washed with distilled water to remove all acid and residual NaCl.

 These films are washed and dried in vacuum oven for 12h at 35 degC.

The selection of bio materials plays a key role in tissue engineering and the fundamental requirements for the bio materials are: biocompatibility and favourable in vivid mechanical performance.




In addition to the observed K dependency, the temperature Tm increased with decreasing grain size.

KCl was added to the powders as an internal standard.

   The Bi2O3 pigment was added to four commercially available lead-free frits, two of which are used for overlayer painting (Frit A and Frit B) and two of which are used for line drawing (Frit C and Frit D).

Specifically, 〜     More specifically,

、 Specifically, the following measures will be taken:


To incorporate the effect of an electric field, we utilize the concept of domain wall pressure that moves a domain wall.

The PLD system has been described in detail elsewhere.

      Although we have not investigated the strain in these epitaxial InGaAs layers in detail yet, (まだ詳しくは調べていない)

However, Pr yellow is slightly bluish compared with koiki.

   Since lead volatilisation is a more significant problem at the sintering stage compared to calcination, use of an atmosphere powder is essential.

This is to be compared with the increase in a0 shown in Fig.1 from 404 to 405 pm, some 0.25%.

The color of the CeO pigment is almost indistinguishable from the ideal yellow hue and its slightly reddish yellow color makes it suitable as a replacement for the traditional lead-containing yellow pigment used for Arita ware.

Effective medium properties are calibrated iteratively through comparisons of FE results with corresponding experimental measurements.

repeat after memorization

これらの領域はセルフアラインの繰り返しによって形成されるThese regions are formed by repeatedly performing self- alignment.

Mueller for the first time distinguished the three possible origins for proper ferroelectricity in Rochelle Salt, namely the possibility of a dielectric-, an elastic-, or a piezoelectric-dominated instability and, from the experimental information, showed that the driving force in Rochelle Salt was a softening of the clamped dielectric stiffness x11.

One interesting facet of the system PT:PZ is that the high vapor pressure of PbO at the forming temperature, which was originally believed to be a curse in dealing with these ceramics, has in later studies turned out to be a major blessing.

The difficulty rather well illustrated by the considerable legal effort which required to establish the true patent position in this field.

Sample groups 5-8 were prepared from barium titanate produced in the laboratory and followed a similar preparation process.

At day 15, HLC are close to confluence: density is 40x103cellscm-2 on XColl-Cell and 59x103cellscm-2 on negative control, i.e., 68% that of negative control on the test material.



the low-frequency dielectric properties have been studied previously.

Rhombohedral PMN-32.5PT was studied as the matrix〜.

    The nanostructures of the fibrous nanocomposites were studied using an atomic force microscope.

Tanaka studied the system BNT-BaTiO3 and reported the presence of 〜

This study investigates the temperature dependence 〜

There are a number of studies on the NaNbO3-BaTiO3 binary system, but most of them focus on the dielectric properties and systems with high BaTiO3 concentrations due to their remarkable relaxor characteristic.

(物性、相が)〜によって決定した。 (決定された)>densities were determined by 〜

   They determined that it has a dielectric constant of  at room temperature with loss < 0.002.

An investigation has been carried out into the acceptor-doping of lead magnesium niobate titanate (PMNT) through the introduction of manganese ions.

〜に関する研究>Work on
 all these questions is currently in progress.

研究室では>Mix 2 contained material prepared in the laboratory from barium carbonate and titanium dioxide.

The band-gap energies of the samples were determinedfrom the absorption edge of the absorbance spectra represented by the Munk function.

(物性、相が)決定した。 (決定された)>The reactively calcined and milled powders were characterized for surface area, parrticle size, and phase purity by x-ray diffraction.

   Tensile strength was determined using both diametral compression and beam tests under three- and four-point loading.

    The samples were conditioned(決定した。) at 98% RH(相対湿度 relative hummidity) and immediately transferred to the testing chamber maintained at 37 decC and 92% RH.


use a plummet to determine vertical lines


     The day is fixed for the 1st of next month.

The cubic form, which is stable at the processing temperatures, readily transforms to tetragonal upon cooling.

     BNT and BKT have perovskite structure with rhombohedral and tetragonal symmetry respectively and exhibit ferroelectric properties below rhombohedral to pseudocubic phase transition temperature(Tr-p).

     The symmetry of the polar phase below 435℃ is tetragonal, it becomes orthorhombic at 225 ℃ and finally rhombohedral at -10℃.

     Single-phase perovskites with extended solubility were synthesized.

    The low-temperature phase has a perovskite psudomonoclinic structure and inverts to a psudotetragonal structure at a temperature that decreases with increasing x.

   The strongest reflections in the majority of the XRD patterns indicate formation of the perovskite phase of PMN, which could be matched with JCPDS file 27-1199.

   To a first approximation, this phase has a cubic perovskite-type structure in space group Pm3m, with cell parameter a=405 pm.

   This phase has a cubic structure with cell parameter a=1.059 nm in space group Fd3m.

   As temperature increased, the amount of perovskite grows, and the fraction of pyrochlore decreases.

   At 600 degC using the pyrochlore target the film has become almost completely single-phase perovskite PMN while the film made from the perovskite target still show a small pyrochlore peak.

   It is interesting to note that a single phase of perovskite is found in most of these 〜

   This phase has a cubic structure with cell parameter a=1.059 nm in space group Fd3m.

   To a first approximation, this phase has a cubic perovskite-type structure in space group Pm3m, with cell parameter a=405pm.


   The second crystalline phase transitions to the amorphous phase easier than the first crystalline phase.

Some of the very early basic work on pure PbTiO3 and on the PbTiO3-PbZrO3 solid solution system, which established the useful high Curie temperature of lead zirconate and the outline of the phase diagram for this system, was carried out in Japan by Shirane and Takeda, Shirane et al., and Sawaguchi.



   Based on these studies it was concluded that +文

   From these results it can be concluded that the columbite route is an effective way 

   Experimental studies on barium titanate have concluded that there is an increase in densification at the onset of abnormal grain growth.

   Thomp concluded that particle morphology was also important, with a platelet shape being preferable to spherical particles and sticky grains preferable to dry grains.


結論として、〜>In conclusion, 

Furthermore, visual evaluation by a specialist of overglazing gave the same conclusion.

The dielectric properties of the PMN ceramics 
was examined as function of frequency and temperature.

From considerations of ionic radii, it is expected that Mn ions are more likely to go into solid solution in the perovskite phase than Mn ions.

   to consider deeply and examine.  よく思考して検討する。


To verify the dynamic poling model, the higher harmonic 〜

Although 〜, 〜 Although I am a private citizen, I have some relationship.


(主に雑誌用?)Yet 〜, 〜  Yet Sony, 〜 (Yet は、yet文の前に説明があって、それを説明する時に使う)

以下に言及しなければならない、述べなけばならない>It should be mentioned here that these samples showed 

The loss tangent of the material were calculated from the 〜

   Table 1 lists the cubic lattice parameter of the CeZrBiO pigments calculated from the interplanar spacing of the (311) lattice plane.

Here, maximum densities have been calculated from the observed lattice parameters ( Fig.1),assuming a d-value equal to x.

Then this calculated value is set as the binary threshold.

   Calculations of the critical defect size for the diametral compression samples was in the region of 200-400μmfor laboratory-prepared titanate.

Using this as the guideline a composition given as (Li0.03Na0.55K0.42) NbO3
 was designed.


Eventually, 〜

The CO2-based curve ultimately cross that of the air-sintered at a manganese concentration of approximately 7 mol%.

(前文の)結果として、>As a result, 〜  その他の活用例) As a function of frequency, 〜     As a consequence, 〜

                As a result, its color is almost indistinguishable from that of the medium yellow.

from the results of repeated experiments

      From these results it can be concluded that 

                 It was found from the result that 〜 この結果から、〜ということが分かった。

   The laboratory furnace (tube design) produced the best result, with the vacuum-sintered samples showing no PTCR effect at all

Tanaka pointed out that modification of BNT with BS results in better piezo properties.

Sintering under ordinary conditions often leads to poor densities, and thus properties that are not optimized.

The results of this investigation were: (1) A fabrication process has been developed 〜. (2) Increasing 〜.

結果はthat以下を明らかにしている>These results show that
 the remanent polarization 〜

結局は eventually(注意:否定文には使わない)

現状では、〜>As yet,
 this result is unexplained.

Therefore, at present, decoupling is the 〜. 
    At present, 

 PZT ceramics are the transduction material〜

   The RMI process is used presently to manufacture SiC/SiC turbine shrouds.

   PTCR thermistors are now used widely as self-regulating heating devices.

そのケースでは、しばしば〜>As often is the case, 

In this case, heat treatment at 1300  for 24h yielded completely 1:1 ordered samples for all values of x.

    〜 the deviation from stoichiometry in this case.

Using a sintering agent which can form low temperature melting phase can effectively reduce the evaporation.

        Clearly, it is shown that MnO additions reduce dielectric loss, particularly the low frequency losses which are attributed to conduction processes.

   Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.

   Clearly the Mn(III)O6-dipoles are, much larger than their TiO6 counterparts, reducing dT from 20 to 0.39 degC at a substitution level of just 0.45 mol% manganese in 95PMN-5PT.

It is evident from Fig.1 that PNN exhibits a frequency dispersion of the dielectric maximum, i.e., the maximum dielectric constant increases and shifts to lower temperatures as the frequency is decreased.

From Fig.8 and 9, strontium is more effective at reducing the Tmax.

     Three of the four families show a decrease in LUT at high PT contents despite the increase in Tmax shown in Fig.7.

     This decrease is attributed to non-180 domain

The observed fall-off in density at 1300 degC is due both to PbO volatilisation impeding the sintering process and the lower density of the pyrochlore phase, which is present with a concentration of 24wt%.

The years 1950 to 1960 were a period of rapid proliferation in the number of known ferroelectrics.

Although not presently understood, this is .

The low liquid phase content dramatically increases the growth rate.

   Swartz and Shrout and Voss, et al. reported that by first prereacting the B site refractory oxide of such Pb(B1/2B1/2)O3 and/or Pb(B1/3B2/3)O3 perovskites to form the appropriate columbite BB2O6, or wolframite BBO4, compounds, and then followed by reaction with PbO, the amount of pyrochlore phase is greater reduced.

   However, after sterilization the stress droped drastically and stabilizes around 16MPa (genipin) and ~20MPa (gluteraldehyde) for the crosslinked materials and was ~8MPa for non-crosslinked ones.

The dramatic change in electrooptic sensitivity of these compositions as at 

The decoupling of the high-field LUT from the Tmax at higher PT content and lack of a clear trend in Tmax with dopant are major hurdles to selection of an optimum material.

     The absence of fluorite for compositions with〜

   Because of the lack of pyroplastic properties, temperatures approximating those required for air sintering are necessary for proper processing of the niobates at pressures compatible with the strength of the materials employed.

By comparison, the absence of an increase in er-values at 100 Hz and 1kHz in the air-sintered samples suggests a complete oxidation of the manganese ions to the +3 state.

These lead-free piezoelectric ceramics have relatively good piezoelectric properties, but they also have some drawbacks. The NBT-based ceramics have a low depolarization temperature (Td), which is much lower than their Curie temperature and usually below 200 deg.C. For the KNN ceramics, the most serious problem is the poor sinterability.

An additional deficiency of PIP processes is that matrices usually remain partially amorphous.

The powder was calcined at 700 for 1h to form the perovskite phase.

These mixtures were then calcined between 750 and 850  for 6h to form the desired perovskite phase as verified by X-ray diffraction(XRD).

Back side and front side contacts were made using Ti/Au contacts on

Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.

The presence of PbRuO appear to be the cause of the high leakage current

Additionally, the PTCR effect is caused by grain boundary activity with the centers of the grains considered to be conducting.

物事の原因 a reason for something

その原因はThe cause of that is

その発生原因は不明です。The cause of that outbreak is unknown.

この違いの原因は何ですか?What is the cause of this difference?

関連: 引き起こす>
Increasing the PbO content led to the emergence of perovskite at higher ZrO2 contents under the same processing conditions, as noted in Fig.1(b).

関連: 〜が結果となる。生じる。起こる。>
Tanaka pointed out that modification of BNT with BS results in better piezo properties.

関連:  導く、〜という結果になる>
Sintering under ordinary conditions often leads to poor densities, and thus properties that are not optimized.

Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.

This is about two orders of magnitude lower than a typical PZT capacitor.

The tendency to fluorite formation and its relative stability were enhanced 

    Two trends in the data presented in Table I were observed : (1) An increase in sintering temperature〜. (2) Excess MgO increased the 〜.

            The L* and a* values tend to decrease and increase with the increase in the Bi content in the pigment, respectively.

    The mechanical properties of the gebnipin crosslinked collagen-cellulose compsites showed the same trend as those crosslinked with gluteraldehyde in our previous work, and furthermore, the tensile strength and modulus were higher for genipin crosslinked ones.

However, the major drawback of KNN ceramics is the need for special handling of the starting powders, sensitivity of properties to nonstoichiometry, and complex densification process.

The physiological significance was discussed from the standpoint ofthe control of asparatate biosynthesis.

    It is interesting from the viewpoint of comparative biochemistry.

 私の見解では In my opinion

Piezoelectric phenomena exhibited by certain piezoelectric crystals, polarized polymers, and composites are used in a number of electromechanical transducer applications, including vibration, pressure, and stress sensors, as well as hydrophones.

ある種の圧電結晶や分極後高分子、そしてコンポジットによって現れる圧電現象 は、〜に用いられている

    Robust materials solutions to these phenomena have yet to be devised.

The observation of larger Er,max-values is frequently correlated with relaxor properties, although there is, as yet, no straightforward theoretical framework for the interpretation of this phenomenon.

顕著な改善 marked improvement // remarkable improvement // significant improvement

This behavior was also observed by Yonezawa, et al. in the PFW-PFN system and by Swartz, et al. in PMN.

The lattice volume was constant for samples with Bi3+ contents exceeding the composition limit to form solid solutions in a single phase.

Only minuscule of Ce and Bi were detected.

Samples were polished using 1200 grit silicon carbide paper and cleaned with water and acetone, before being dried at 180 degC for 2h.

Furthermore, for systems with untilted octahedra, as is the case here, Va/Vb=5.

原理的には>In principle,
 the coating system could be modified accordingly-through selection of materials with different elastic moduli, CTEs, and toughnesses-to avoid a particular cracking mode.

Challenges fall into two broad categories: Design and optimization of composite microstructures to improve performance and durability; and Predictive tools that realistically capture the material performance envelope.

A number of composition manipulations have been tried to alleviate these problems, and two of the more successful still in use are listed in Table I.

Here the crystal structure was significantly simpler, the symmetry of the paraelectric phase higher, and the basis of the structural arrangement of phosphate or arsenate tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonding at the corners had already been hypothesized from earlier structural studies by West.

The very important contributions to field in this country in each of these periods may be noted.

The radial electromechanical coupling coefficient has been raised by hot pressing, especially in the midrange of the compositional series.

For example, radial coupling coefficients as high as 48% have been obtained for a 50-50 niobate as compared with 34% for a conventional ceramic.

Samples of 13mm diameter and 2-3mm thickness were used for diametral compression testing, with discs of 40mm diameter and 4mm thickness used for machining the beam specimens.

経時変化>Changes with time
 are observed for the various properties of the niobate ceramics.

Mix 4 showed the steepest gradient and a resistivity change of almost 3 orders of magnitude.

超ウラン元素a transuranic element

ツリウムという元素an element called thulium 非金属元素nonmetallic elements

経験的に安全である。it is empirically secure.


  However, the recovery is uneven and remains dependent on policy support, and high unemployment is a major concern.

私の懸念は彼らの方針です。 My concern is their plan.

個人情報の漏洩が懸念される。There is concern over the leakage of personal information.

The morphology of the composites was studied using a JOEL SEM.

Genipin used as crosslinking(架橋) agent and phosphate buffer saline(生理食塩水) solution (PBS) was purchased(購入した) from Sigma-Aldrich.

The tensile strength and modulus(係数) increase for the composite with 75 wt% nanofibres but the strain decreased.

 On negative cotrol, HEC start to build a specific network (premises of capillary formation ) associating cells together(Figure 9-3).


原料としての糸 thread as a raw material



On that, 〜


Here, 〜

   (カンマなしパターン)  Here we show that there are cases where 180 domain wall motion can also contribute to this nonlinear response.

    Here d signifies the uncertainty in oxygen-content as a result of possible variations in the oxidation state of the manganese ion.

(where)〜は〜である>and the bulk polarizability can be written as

         P = 3xE

    where E is the incident electric filed at the fundamental frequency.

   The band-gap energies of the samples were determined from the absorption edge of the absorbance spectra represented by the Kublka-Munk function, f(R)=xxx, where R is reflectance.


Several device designs have been fabricated.

At 2.3 m in height and 1.1 m in diameter, the center-body is the largest oxide CMC component ever made.


これまで〜>Until now,
 diffraction work on PMN has indicated〜

 the very long sintering time, it is apparent that〜

    Considering the difference in the color coordinates between Table 2 and Table 3, it is preferable that the a* value of the pigment powder is as positively large as possible, because it is decreased significantly after overglazing.

The complexity of the logistics should be carefully evaluated when considering dynamic allocation.


The covalency of the Ta and Nb cations also must be considered.(〜も考えなければならない)

システムの力学的な挙動に関して,… の概念を考慮することが必要である。

    In regard to the dynamic behavior of systems, it is necessary to consider the concepts of

PMN-PT were prepared by a mixed-oxide route from〜

             CeO2 pigments were synthesized by cation complexation using citric acid.

    PMN powders were synthesized by a modified two stage mixed oxide route, as reported earlier.

The powder was calcined at 700 for 1h to form the perovskite phase.


    mRNA expression type III, an early synthesized collagen in ligament healing are detected and measured for both control (validation of the test system) and XColl-Cell.


A synthesis determination section 15 acquires a synthesis conditionfrom a synthesis condition storage section 71.


高度に制御された構造を有するハイパーブランチポリマーを、安定した収量を確保しつつ、簡易に大量合成すること。To simply synthesize a large amount of a hyper branch polymer having a highly controlled structure while maintaining a stable yield.

    cDNA was synthesized from 1ng total RNA using Verso TM cDNA Syntesis kit.



これらは、〜された>These were
 all sintered in flowing air.

However, beyond the Curie point, the tand rapidly with increasing temperature〜

     Over this range, 

    The lattice volume was constant for samples with Bi3+ contents exceeding the composition limit to form solid solutions in a single phase.

After heating for 10h, the samples had had a Lotgering factor 〜

降下 >
Depression of melting point is invaluable in the identification of unknowns.

The oxides were mixed in alcohol with YSZ balls as media by ball-milling for 16h.

Using a sintering agent which can form low temperature melting phase can effectively reduce the evaporation.

It has been shown that doping PMNT with manganese is an effective technique for increasing its sinterability in less oxidising atmospheres, such as CO2.

The effect of excess MgO on the densification behavior of Ba-substituted PMN is 

               The effect of the MnO additions on the resistivity for various firing conditions is presented in Fig.3.

     Changes in the time spent at this temperature (from 30min to 50h) had little effect on the grain size.

               The line in Figure 8 shows  the effect of the reaction time on the average diameter of cubic particle, from which it

can be noticed that the increase of size gradually slows down as the reaction is prolonged.

    The effect of the Zr4+ content on the lattice constant of the CeZrBiO pigments was also characterized for samples with a Bi3+ content of 20 mol%.

These compositions were also found to densityat low temperatures and had grain size effects similar to that of 0.6PFN-0.4PNN.

Furthermore, small-angle resonant X-ray scattering measurements on PMN showed no evidence for compositional segregation between the ordered domains and the disordered matrix.

試験的な試みとして>A tentative estimate, 

    In an attempt to improve on the microstructure of these bodies and at the same time perhaps to enhance their electrical characteristics, an investigation of the hot pressing of potassium-sodium niobates was undertaken.

 We attempted the expriment. Multihop attempted. They attempted to climb Mt.Everest.

 of these domains results in an increase of P and e as〜

    Clearly, in a short paper of this type it is not at all possible to do justice to the many scientists and engineers who contributed to the development of ferroelectrics.

It is just this "docility" and flexibility for chemical manipulation to modify the ferroelectric properties which was so effectively exploited at first by the Clevite group, and later by all other transducer manufacturers to tailor the original advantageous properties for specific application areas.

Moreover, unlike the Pt capacitors, the Ru capacitors showed 

Different corona point arrangements having 1,5, and 32 needles were used.

           it has a different tone from these traditional pigments

     At intermediate length scales between those defining a tow or a ply and those of the unit cell of the weave-and when structural dimensions approach the scale of the material microstructure, different modeling approaches are required.

     The porosity levels of samples sintered from each mix were very different, with mix 2 consistently showing much lower porosities than the other samples.

     Experimental values of (xxxx) obtained for the hot pressing of a (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 ceramic at various temperatures and times at two different pressures are given in Table I.

    Two different testing conditions were used;(I) dry condition at room temperature, and (2) wet conditions at 37 degC and 92% RH, with a gauge length of 20 mm.

Fortunately, 〜

At higher prestress, 〜

Perovskite-structured ferroelectrics show both intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the piezoelectric response. The former is due to field-induced changes in the polarization, while the latter is associated with domain wall and/or phase boundary motion.

    In general, the latter is undesirable, since it is one of the many factors which may affect properties, such as electromechanical coupling factor and relative permittivity of the ceramic adversely.

However, research on the NN ceramics has rarely been reported, possibly because it is difficult
to fabricate high-density NN ceramics due to the volality of the sodium component at the sintering temperature.

    It has been reported that the ABO3 structure perovskites Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 and Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 (hereafter designated PFN and PNN, respectively) are difficult to fabricate as single-phase ceramics due to the appearance of stable lead-niobate pyrochlore phase on calcination.

    This led to a decrease in strength of 80% and the samples became extremely difficult to handle without causing premature failure.

    Only major highlights can be touched on and, in drawing out these highlights, personal bias is hard to avoid.

The difficulty rather well illustrated by the considerable legal effort which required to establish the true patent position in this field.


朝の通勤が困難になる。There will be difficulties for commuting to work in the morning


    To provide a method for fabricating a element, for which handling of the element can be restrained from becoming difficult.

汚染物質の回収が困難な場合であっても、 / 汚染物質が含まれた土壌内の地下水やガスを回収する。

    To recover ground water and gas in soil comprising contaminants / even if the recovery of the contaminants is difficult

He insisted that the first step was to improve energy efficiency.


The cell consists of 

a 1 mm thick InP buffer layer doped n type with a target carrier concentration of 1 x10 cm3

    Matrices should comprise refractory phases with temperature capabilities comparable to those of the fibers.

    They comprised of four formulations, summarized Table?,which, together with details of the sample preparation, have been described previously.


効果的な effective

ここに herein


広範囲に、広く、大規模に extensively

Dielectric measurements were carried out on an automated system whereby a Delta design model 2300 temperature control box, and Hewlett Packard Model 4274A LCR meter were controlled by a Hewlett Packard 9825A desktop computer system.

    Strength then is controlled largely by the very weakest fibers in the population.

The lattice constant decreases monotonically with increasing Zr4+ content for samples with x≦0.37, which indicates the formation of solid solutions.


The lattice constant decreases monotonically with increasing Zr4+ content for samples with x≦0.37, which indicates the formation of solid solutions.

     Table 1 lists the cubic lattice parameter of the CeZrBiO pigments calculated from the interplanar spacing of the (311) lattice plane.

Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.

Considering the difference in the color coordinates between Table 2 and Table 3, it is preferable that the a* value of the pigment powder is as positively large as possible, because it is decreased significantly after overglazing.

 どうやら、このサイズのテーブルが好まれるようです。It appears that this table size is preferred.

色の赤いものが好まれる。 Red ones are preferred.

Since the a* value of the present CeO2 pigment is much larger than that of the commercially available praseodymium yellow (Table 2), the panel coated with former is slightly reddish compared with that coated with the latter.

    To provide a method for coating a substrate with a nitride such as titanium nitride. 新規な窒化チタンコーティングなどの窒化物コーティング法を提供する。

    For example, the sides of the metal segments are coated mutually by resin coating, etc. 例えば金属片の側辺相互を樹脂コーティングなどで被覆する。

    The discoloration resistance and anti-staining properties of colored titanium are improved by treating the surface of colored titanium to form a silica coating layer thereon. カラーチタンの表面にシリカコーティング層を処理する事により耐変色性と耐汚染性を改善する。


筋道だって、コヒーレントに、理路整然と、>Since the degree of relaxation is negligible, it may be argued thatthe polarisation vectors of the polarisation clusters ( as in undoped PMNT) are oriented by the Mn(III)O6-dipoles in such a way that the whole material can respond coherently to an electric field.

If this is the underlying cause of this behaviour,the presence of both Mn2+ and Mn3+ ions in the CO2-sintered sample is implied.

Differences derive from several sources, all based fundamentally on the degree of microstructural uniformity.

Thus consideration is given here to the phases formed, densification, microstructural development and dielectric properties in PMN ceramics sintered at various temperatures.

In principle, if new paradigms in matrix and coating architectures that strictly control oxidation of SiC were to be devised, the bond coat could be eliminated altogether.

For example, if the goal is to predict macroscopic stress-strain response of a CMC under multiaxial loading over length scales that exceed the unit-cell dimensions, stress-strain relations of the homogenized medium can be described using phebomenological plasticity-like models, calibrated by a few standard mechanical tests.

Composites Horizons has begun manufacturing mixer and center body assemblies from an oxide CMC for use in engines for long-range business jets that will be going into service later this year.(今年後半)

Even-higher-fidelity results for damage prediction are obtained by tracking initiation and growth of individual matrix cracks using cohesive zone models.

CMAS reacts with candidate EBC materials to form nonprotective phases.

今後は>From now on,
 a more prescriptive approach will be needed to solve this issue. 今後はこの問題を解決するために、より規範的なアプローチを取ることが必要となるだろう。

今後>Looking ahead, 
it seems obvious that further miniaturization will take place.

A detailed study of on the properties of dense material was the main consideration at this time.


The number of applications expanded steadily during the next three decades and in now entering an age of integration and miniaturization in which three-dimensional ceramic circuitry is being developed.

Late in the nineteenth century its physical properties began to excite interest.

    By the late 1940s, almost every inexpensive phonograph had a Rochelle Salt bimorph pickup head.

Further integration and miniaturization will take place in the years ahead as electroceramic technology follows the pathways of the semiconductor industry.

It is also clear, however, from the hard-fought legal case that many other scientists and engineers, both in the United States and abroad, were poised on the brink of, or had actually realized but not effectively reported, somewhat similar findings.

The diameter of the sintered pellets ranged from 10.5-11.2mm, and this combination resulted in a ratio of about 1.18.

For mixes1, 3 and 4 barium titanate was obtained from TAM Chemicals as a high-purity grade (total impurities<0.05% by mass).

The ac losses and dc resistivities are not changed appreciably by this processing.

ビスマス系ガラス混合物  Bismuth-based glass mixture

The collagen and cellulose fibril appears to be compacted together by a matrix phase, which is probably the crosslinked non-fibrous collagen.

 in a high tempereture region  / in a low temperature region


    The CNT dispersant contains silica colloid and/or colloid of an oxide of a transition metal.




                      The micrograph of 〜 × → Micrograph of 〜 ○


  Fig.X. X-ray-diffraction pattern of a PZT thin film grown on a RuO2/MgO substrate.(エックス線図1つの時)

  Fig.X. (001) and (100) X-ray diffraction peaks taken on the surface of the PT-BF-polymer composite before and after poling.


  Fig.X. XRD traces of the (a) as-annealed and (b) electrically poled samples. (エックス線図2つ以上の時)

  Fig.X. XRD patterns for lead titanate compositions with (a) x=0, (b) x=-0.1, and (c) x=-0.2 heat-treated at 500 ℃.



  Fig.X. Schematic of the load recording assembly used for relaxation studies under the application of an electric field.

  Fig.X. Schematic showing the anisotropy of crack lengths in a mechanically poled sample.

  Fig.X. Schematic diagram of the corona discharge poling apparatus.



  Fig.X. Fracture toughness, Kic, of unpoled samples as a function of temperature.

  Fig.X. Load vs time trace for a sample under the application of an electric field of magnitude 10 kV/cm.

  Fig.X. Plot of ln (-dP/dt) vs time for the trace shown in Fig.6.

  Fig.X. Selected electrical and optical properties as functions of(A) La content for 65/35 Zr/Ti ratio and (B) Zr/Ti ratio for La content of 7 at.%.

  Fig.X. P-E curves for a (001)PMN crystal, a PMN ceramic, and a "hard" PZT ceramic.

 Fig.X. Electromechanical properties of EC-69 as a function of s, taken at various Eac.

  Fig.X. Dielectric constant as a function of temperature.

  Fig.X. Time dependence of the electrical current of Pt/PZT/Pt/MgO and RuO2/PZT/RuO2/MgO capacitors.

  Transparency of polished plates of PLZT.Fig.X.

  Fig.X. Microstructure of PLZT polished and thermally etched at 1300℃ for 1h.

  Fig.X. Photomicrograph showing a microindent introduced in a mechanically poled sample.

  Fig.X. SEM micrograph of an individually fired PZT filament having a diameter of ~25 mm.

  Fig.X. Phase diagram of the PMN-PT solid-solution system.

  Fig.X. Flow sheet for processing of piezoelectric and electrooptic ceramics.

 Fig.X. Typical hysteresis loops from various ferroelectric ceramics: (A) BT capacitor, (B) soft PZT, (C) PLZT relaxor, and (D) PSZT antiferroelectric material.



  Table II. Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of PZT Ceramics, Fired PZT Compostites, and

0.5PbTiO3-0.5BiFeO3-Polymer Composites

  Table I. d33 Values of PZT Ceramics Poled by Different Corona Point Arreangements

  Table III. Compositions and Properties of Typical Ferroelectric Ceramics

  Table V. Fluid properties of the PZT suspension

   Table III. Electrooptic R and g Coefficients for PLZT Compositions

 Table X. Lattice Parameters of Phases Identified

 Table X. Fluid properties of the PZT suspension

 Table X. Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties of PZT Ceramics

 Table X. Electrooptic R and g Coefficients for PLZT Compositions

 Table X. Compositions and Properties of typical Ferroelectric Ceramics