表2にまとめる>Table II summarizes
 the piezoelectric〜

  These conditions are summarized in Table?.

In summary,〜   
,  In conclusion, 〜(結論として)


until 〜  Until a few years ago, 〜 2、3年前までは、〜

 the amount of PMN perovskite formed increased until 800, where formation of 

The slurry was stirred at <60 deg.C. until the solvent completely evaporated.

  KNN system exhibits piezoelectric properties up to the Curie temperature.


In order to perform this task, 
first an optimized processing procedure was evolved for obtaining the dence ceramics of each composition. Secondly, the temperature

Aside from his work in the theater, he is also an accomplished pianist.

  This figure also shows a decrease in e with increasing t.

As soon as the field was applied, the load rapidly dropped〜

These values for the hysteretic loss are quite high and 

Before it is sintered, the fiber from this process can be easily chopped or loosely bundled.

前に書いたとおり、〜(前述したとおり)>As stated earlier,
 substitutions of Ba for〜.

 work on our sol-gel PZT has shown that 〜

However, research on the NN ceramics has rarely been reported, possibly because it is difficult to fabricate high-density NN ceramics due to the volality of the sodium component at the sintering temperature.

The Pt interlayer was 100-300 A thick, and was deposited either by magnetron sputter deposition at room temperature, or by ion-beam sputter deposition at 400 ℃

 Although we have not investigated the strain in these epitaxial InGaAs layers in detail yet, 

前もって previously 

まっすぐに、直に directly

These products were mixed, as above, with reagent grade PbO (yellow) and/or reagent grade PbTiO3.

the condition could be due to oxygen ion conduction, which should be greater in the CO2-sintered sample because of the expected higher concentration of oxygen vacancies compared to corresponding air-sintered material.

It is interesting to note that compositions near to PFN showed virtually no relaxational character, but with increasing amounts of PNN, the dielectric maximums decreased and showed more and more frequency dispersion.

These results demonstrate that the medium yellow pigment traditionally used in Arita ware but which contains lead and antimony can be faithfully replicated by the present CeO pigment, which does not contain any toxic elements.

 fibers (such as those within laminates) are prefered over wavy fibers (those within weaves), because waviness leads to stress elevations that exacerbate matrix cracking.

The process is rapid and yields matrices with minimal porosity. matricesはmatrixの複数系

 one of the major "turning points" in ferroelectricity came in the very early 1940s with discovery of the unusual dielectric properties of a number of simple mixed oxides which crystallize with the perovskite structure.

Unfortunately, some incorrect work by an equally eminent German colleague led Pockels to doubt his original measurements and he did not proceed with the work.

  Second, over most of the early period, the crystal symmetry, based on morphological assessments, was incorrectly assigned.

a fearful mistake(ひどい間違い)

This text is essential reading for any serious student of ceramic piezoelectrics.

The rate of temperature increase during all experiments was 3℃ min-1 , and each temperature was maintained for 4 min-1  prior to each resistance measurement.

Precoating with serum(リンパ液) proteins mimics (まねる、擬態する)‘in vivo (生体内の)‘ situation following implantation(埋め込み) (adsorbed (吸着した)protein layer).




〜のように見える(思われる)>It appears that
 both K and T decrease〜 

  The binder appears to assist in the formation of an open pore network which allows the liquid phase to flow easily through the microstructure.


  It seems perhaps reasonable to term this early Rochelle Salt period.

The presence of PbRuO appear to be the cause of the high leakage current

pyrochlore formation is most likely to be due solely to PbO evaporation.

It may be suspected that +文    It is suspected that +文

It is seen from our results in Table 2 that 

  It is seen in Fig.4 that the temperature of maximum permittivity, T(er,max), rises sharply in air-sintered samples at the lowest manganese substitution-level, x=0.0045, remaining approximately constant at all higher manganese-concentrations.

Only two exothermic peaks were seen in CMN.

Doping with manganese appears to aid densification in CO2 at [Mn]-levels of up to 6.5mol%.

These pigment  exhibited brilliant blue colors in comparison with those of commercial products and have high chemical and light resistance.


Mix 1 did not seem sensitive to sintering atmosphere.


Perovskite was observed for the base powder.

This leads to discontinuities and〜  This led to a decrease in 〜(導いた)

   An additional parameter that can lead to modification of the dielectric properties is stress.

  The historical roots leading to the discovery of ferroelectrricity can be traced back to the last century and the work of the famous crystal physicistes Groth, Voigt, and the brothers Curie.

  Addition of the binder prior to milling led to a 100% increase in strength over those in which the binder was added at the normal time.

Sintering under ordinary conditions often leads to poor densities, and thus properties that are not optimized.

  This can lead to spallation under cyclic loading conditions.

   This leads to greater porosity and shrinkage in the radial direction following sintering.

We estimated the real value of Km, without porosity, using Wiener's rule.

  Unfortunately, it is difficult to estimate the full extent of Cady's early work on Rochelle Salt, since much of it was conducted under a U.S.Navy contract for sonar applications and was consequentry classified and remained unpublished.

The reflectivity of the InP/SiO2/Si interface is estimated to be 〜0.45 at maximum in the IR range for 〜

Piezoelectric properties of BNT are very interesting and it has been projected as the key non-lead material.

In this connection, the following approximation proposed by Wartz and Shot was employed.

The investigations of the formation of 1:1 ordered structures in the closely related BaTiO3 perovskite systems showed that the 〜

The sintered density increased with the addition of excess MgO and reached a value near 96% of the theoretical density at the sintering temperature of 1250 .

  Densities of the sintered pellets were determined by using the Archimedes principle.

  The density of the sintered samples was found to be above 95% of the theoretical. Densities of the sintered pellets were determined by using the Archimedes principle.

  A density of about 92-96% of the maximum value for PMN can be achieved in this way.

  With the excess Bsite ion, CuO-added KNN was highly densified.

  Highly dense KNN-BT ceramics can be obtained easily by the addition of BT into KNN composition, which facilitates the poling process because of a decrease in leakage current.

  The sintered disks were then round parallel with 12 micron m Al2O3 powder and geometrical densities were calculated.

  Effects of the firing conditions on the density, Tc, dielectric constant and loss for samples having the composition 0.6PFN-0.4PNN with MnO additions are presented in Table I.

  A density of about 92-96% of the maximum value for PMN can be achieved in this way.

  The maximum density was obtained by sintering method at 1275 degC.

Piezoelectric properties of BNT are very interesting and it has been projected as the key non-lead material.

The objective of this study was to find the suitable nonlead composition〜

These studies clearly discerned the importance of the composition-dependent rhombohedral-tetragonal ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase change near the 52:48 mole fraction composition and initiated a whole new emphasis in piezoceramic research.

When heated in carbon dioxide, MnCO3 decomposed to MnO at 650 degC, as in air, but no oxidation was found to occur to Mn2O3 at higher temperatures.

This method will be more attractive for PMN-PT.

The barium titanate period, 1940 to 1950, occurred when the major experimental features of this fascinating crystal were first studied, and the capacitor and transducer applications for ceramic BaTiO3 were firmly established.

XRD of pellets made from unreacted mixed oxide powders revealed no reaction 

It is interesting to note that compositions near to PFN showed virtually no relaxational character, but with increasing amounts of PNN, the dielectric maximums decreased and showed more and more frequency dispersion.

The dielectric constant k and density were also found to increase with firing temperature.

An average grain size of 0.5 to 1.5 mm was observed for samples fired at 900 degC or less short durations (<2h), with the grain size increasing to a maximum of about 4 microns for samples fired at 900 degC to 10 h and/or 1000 degC for 5 h.

We have been working to synthesize several lead-free pigments for porcelain to satisfy the demands of environment- and safety-oriented consumers.

It remains an open question as to whether dissociation of Mn2O3 to MnO. Mn2O3 occurs as an intermediate reaction at ca. 1000 degC, or whether reaction to form the perovskite phase proceeds directly, with manganese still in the +3 state.

In cases where a large thermal expansion mismatch exists relative to SiC/SiC, a low-compliance microstructure may be required to impart strain tolerance.

The tensile strength of non-crosslinked and crosslinked nanocomposites in wet conditions closely match the targeted tensile strength of 28-38MPa and strain of 18-30% (based on the measured values of strength and strain of natural ligaments/tendons by De Santis et al.).


An example of the manifestation of these mechanisms on fracture surfaces of a precursor-derived SiC/SiC composite is shown in Figure 4.

From our perspective, one can see there was much merit to both points of view, and that really the phenomena are adequately described either as spontaneous polarization-biased electrostriction of the prototypic phase, or true piezoelctricity of the ferroelectric phase.

This has the advantage of increasing the grain-boundary surface area, which is where the PTC effect is thought to originate.


  That light blue, vertically‐striped blouse looks nice on her

がかった〜>緑がかった青 blue that inclines to green

greenish indigo blue 藍碧という色

Ligaments are made of a highly organized extra(特別の) cellular matrix(ECM) of densely (密集して)packed collagen fibers and interspersed(散在した) cells named fibroblasts(繊維芽細胞、せんいがさいぼう), which synthesize collagen.

Furthermore, it may be noted that though these nanocellulose fibre based scaffolds showed promising results in terms of biocompatibility and mechanical performance, the effect of nanocellulose fibres while inside the body was not studied and is, therefore, unknown.



Rather, we suggest that it be considered as demonstrating that the coupling .

             Rather, Mn3+ ions will have considerable off-centre displacements, which will be associated with large local electric dipole moments.

    Rather, we believe that the decade of the 70s may turn out to be a key period of diversification in which the thinking which evolved with considerable refinement for simple proper ferroelectrics was applied to other mimetically twinned ferroic crystals, and the concept of dynamical mode instabilities, which have proved so fruitful in understanding the onset of the static displacement systems in ferroelectric domain structures, were applied to an ever-widening spectrum of solid state phase transitions.


the use of powder diffraction by neutrons rather than X-rays

A number of compositional modifications have been studied in the PZT system.

      Numerous measurements did not reveal significant 〜

The above equation neglect domain wall motion contributed by an applied electric field and therefore must be modified.

無視できるほどの、わずかな negligible 

However, research on the NN ceramics has rarely been reported, possibly because it is difficult to fabricate high-density NN ceramics due to the volality of the sodium component at the sintering temperature.

Thus this initial work points towards the oxidation of manganese in situ within the perovskite phase.

The values were consistent with previous measurements on pure barium titanate dielectric materials.

    Mix 4 consistently showed values 30% higher than mix 3.

ろ過水は無色透明であってアルカリ性である。Filtered water is colorless and transparent, and alkaline.



明確な、特定の specific

Determining the realizable performance envelope of a CMC component also require explicit account of the efficacy and durability of EBCs.

    In non-crosslinked nanocomposites this is expected, but interestingly this behaviour is most pronounced(明白である) in genipin crosslinked nanocomposites.


Further work is necessary to clarify this issue.

  the main investigation considers specifically the effect of sintering atmosphere.


However, research on the NN ceramics has rarely been reported, possibly because it is difficult to fabricate high-density NN ceramics due to the volality of the sodium component at the sintering temperature.

"Oil refineries, power plants, landfills, large manufacturers, the cement


No significant band gap shift was caused by the InP/Si substrate structure, as indicatedby the spectral response.

The coloring mechanism of these CeO2-ZrO2-Bi2O3 materials is based on charge transfer from O2p to Ce4f in the CeO2 band structure.

Taiho Ritsuryo was compiled aiming at the realization of government according to the Ritsuryo codes which conformed to the state of affairs in Japan.


   By creating a low carbon society we aim to realize a society where high quality life and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions are achieved at the same time.



A nominal green density of 55% theoretical was achieved using loads of 1, 0.8 and 0.2 ton for each size of die, resulting in compaction pressures of 78, 66 and 101MPa, respectively.


 balls of 10,12 and 20mm diameter were used in an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene vessel, which reduced the particle sizes to the order of 10 μm.


This was most noticeable at low pressures where oxidation was not taking place.

 こっちのほうが検索しやすいというメリットがある.This has the merit of being easy to find.


    Incorporation of salaried workers has a lot of merits not only for employers but also employees




A modifired process was used to prepare〜

     Density measurements were used to assess the 〜

     The weak-field measurements were taken with HP computer.

     the following approximation proposed by Tanaka was employed.

              A standard muffle furnace was employed for air-sintered samples, with CO2-sintering carried out in a tube furnace with a steady flow of CO2 gas.

Transducers made using PZT fiber have prodeuced〜

    Full details of the techniques employed have been described previously.


The sintering profile used is shown in Fig.1.

    The furnace employed for the growth of PMN is 〜

    The PLD system used for thin film growth has been〜


ST particles were synthesized using KCL as a flux. 

   Using this technique, we were able to detect〜     Using this information, 〜

   Powder X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out on crushed sintered pellets, usinga Siemens D500 X-ray diffractometer.

This was achieved by means of a thermocouple placed in the vicinity of the sample.

 values 72, 64.5 and 60.5 pm for the Mg2+, Nb5+ and Ti4+ ions, respectively, the mean radius is calculated to be 66.675 pm.

These materials have an advantage of processing temperatures, which are compatible with the sintering requirements.


If 〜, 〜   
If he can do that, 〜 もし彼がそれを出来るならば、〜

       These results indicate that if a well-dispersed suspension of PZT can be obtained,it should pass through the print head in a manner 

    On the stoichiometric isopleth, it is clear that if crystallization takes place above the To curve,〜

   If the typical domain size is 1mm, a domain close to〜

   If left unimpeded, the reaction leads to global recession of SiC/SiC components.

A dense matrix is required for TGG because porosity reduces 〜

However, based on the measurements, this hypothesis 〜

   Based on the above, to produce densification of the reactively calcined powder, hot presssing was required.

It is not possible on the basis of the evidence 

The objective of this work was to investigate the role of grain size.

   As the objective of the work is to produce sintered PMN ceramics with maximum density and relative permittivity, the suppression of PbO loss during sintering is a major objective.

   The purpose of this article is to explain the high field dielectric and piezoelectric response under constant 

  The purpose of this investigation was to study the microstructure

       Since one aim of the work is to invetigate a doped PMNT system  〜

Since one aim of the work is to investigate a doped PMNT system which is capable of being sintered in less oxidising atmospheres, account has been taken of possible problems with electronic conduction due to loss of oxygen from the ceramic.

  The object of this period of study was first separated in 1655 by Elie Seignette, an apothecary in the town of La Rochelle, France. Sodium potassium tartrate tetrahydrate (Rochelle Salt) was used for over 200 years for its mild purgative medicinal properties.


Substitutions caused a lowering of the Tc.

   This leads to discontinuities and〜

   This route has produced very high perovskite contents, typically>90%, but after sintering 〜

    Stresses approaching 30MPa may be produced from a rapid temperature change of 200℃.

This gives two major results: the permittivity is 〜, and loss is low.

            The presence of Mn3+ ions gives rise to the rapid and immediate fall in dT observed in air-sintered samples in Fig6.

     Hurricans cause severe damage every year. ハリケーンは毎年、大災害を引き起こしている。

    Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.

    Swift temperature changes, which may be induced in protection devices and heating elements under current surges, cause thermal stresses.

   On application of a pressure, flow of material takes place during the time required to reach the desired pressure level, resulting in a relative density at time zero greater than that expected for the given temperature and warm-up period.

   Compositions in the system KNbO3-NaNbO3 have been hot-pressed to yield ceramics with relative densities greater than 99%.


As a consequence of the three dimensional BO6 octahedral network, the presence of oxygen vacancies will not lead to a reduction in unit cell volume, but rather to the presence of additional space within the crystal structure.

The main 
problem with PMN ceramics is the difficulty of fabricating them 〜

Two issues remain:(i) the cross-over in T(er,max)-curves for CO2-and air-sintered samples at a manganese concentration of approximately 7 mol%; and (ii) the generally higher values of Er,max observed in CO2-sintered samples.

その問題を考慮しないことにする.exclude the problem from consideration


    I am thinking that there is absolutely no problems concerning those


For that model, the excess charge within the ordered domains must be compensated by a disordered matrix of equal and opposite charge.

   In this model, the B and B' sites are assumed to be exclusively occupied by B2+ and B5+ cations.

Aside from his work in the theater, he is also an accomplished pianist.

          This nonlinear behavior of Tc's was also reported by Yonezawa, et al. for the PFW-PFN solid-solution system.

           Also in Table I are the temperature coefficients of the dielectric constant at -30 degC,10 degC, and 85 degC with reference to the value at 25 degC.


By monitoring the changes in the order as a function of temperature, the order-disorder boundary for the PNN-PSN system was established.

In particular, the values of dT ( an empirical measure of the extent of frequency dispersion ) were monitored as a function of x in both systems.

An average grain size of 0.5 to 1.5 mm was observed for samples fired at 900 degC or less short durations (<2h), with the grain size increasing to a maximum of about 4 microns for samples fired at 900 degC to 10 h and/or 1000 degC for 5 h.

The molar Ce:Zr ratio was kept constant at 55:45 to give the deepest yellow hue while molar ratio of bismuth was increased from 0 to 23 mol%.

Furthermore, visual evaluation by a specialist of overglazing gave the same conclusion.

In addition, visual observation did not detect any discoloration or loss of gloss of the paintwork after the leaching test.

The magnetic susceptibility of these materials is also of interest, since the manganese ions have magnetic dipole moments which vary with oxidation state.

She can play the violin, not to mention the piano.  彼女はピアノはもちろんのこと、バイオリンも弾ける。

On the basis of this evidence, it appears clear that R.B. Gray of Erie should be credited with having the first working piezoelectric ceramic transducer and that it was he who had the first clear understanding of the importance of electrical poling in establishing a remnant polar domain configuration in ceramic and consequent strong piezoresponse.

In the "preperovskite era," ferroelectricity was something of a scientific curiosity, unique to two rather friable water-soluble crystal families with complex crystal structures.

The tensile strengths of mixes 3 and 4 were the most susceptible to the effects of sintering atmosphere.

Bacterial cellulose based ligament, like a tough double network, was developed by Hagiwara et al. and showed tensile fracture stress as high as 40MPa.

It is assumed that in the non-crosslinked system, the regenerated collagen fibrils and the cellulose nanofibres form a physically entangled(もつれた) double network within the collagen phase.