なにぬねの Negative表現(しなかった)>



Since the crystallization of PMN does not lead to a clear exotherm during differential thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) was utilized to determine the temperature of crystallization. (〜なので、〜した)

     Since there is no qualitative lower limit on strain, and strain decreases relatively smoothly with increasing temperature, we have not set a specific UUT, but have merely used the strain at room temperature as a basis for comparison.(〜なので、There is文)

     The analysis is simplistic since the particles are randomly distributed.

   Analysis of X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed that ceramics in the binary system PFN-PNN were single phase since a complete solid solution was formed for the whole range of binary compositions.

      Because of the eventual application, the high-field LUT has been deemed 〜.(〜のために、〜)

         The analytical procedure could not be extended to dielectric measurement as a function of temperature because of the large scatter in permittivity data which was exhibited by this technique.

   Because air sintering of these materials requires long soaking periods for sufficient densification, it is difficult to realize the desired structure in the fired body.

   Because of the cubic-tetragonal crystallographic phase change which takes place at this temperature,and the associated volume changes, transformation stresses are set up.


    Due to the fine size of the particles, it was possible to obtain〜

    注)Because +文は、科学論文ではあまり使わない。

     This method is not available with ceramics because of the difficulty in machining brittle materials.

   However, the lattice constant became constant for the sample with x=0.41 becauseZrO2 was observed as an impurity phase.

, as evidnt for the 0.3mm sample.(0.3mm試料で明らかなように)


ST particles were selected because they can be produced 〜

   However, the lattice constant became constant for the sample with x=0.41 becauseZrO2 was observed as an impurity phase.

It is still unknown why the accident happened.

       The reason why alternate paths are possible is as follows

私はそれが何故かは分からない。>I don't know why that is.


This was accomplished by substituting an amount of Ba for Pb〜.

The best system out of the three was further optimized to〜

Amongst this type of materials, lead magnesium niobate (PMN) has been extensively investigated both for academic science and for technological applications.

Among the composites studied so far, the simplest types 

Capacitors, transducers, and electrooptic switches made from ferroelectric ceramics and crystals are among these circuit elements.

The textured samples with excess PbO have strain values between random samples without excess PbO and textured samples without PbO.

   With no binder present the green samples tended to contain discrete pores which the liquid phase was unable to fill, leading to more damaging pores.


Neither the transitional fluorite phase nor perovskite could be produced free from PbO for these compositions 

The TGG process is based on relatively conventional powder processing steps and constituents, which makes it an attractive low-cost alternative for fabricating high-strain materials.

As the stress increases, the polarization in the sample gradually becomesorthogonal to the applied load.

                      In some high capacitance parts, the precious metal can make up to 50% to 60% of the selling price of the capacitor.

                       As a result, the yellow hue of CeO2 becomes a little lighter than that of CeO2.

   When strain fields in woven CMCs are maped at higher magnification, periodic strain patterns that reflect the underlying weave become evident.

However, the lattice constant became constant for the sample with x=0.41 because ZrO2 was observed as an impurity phase.

The cell consists of a 1 mm thick InP buffer layer doped n type with a target carrier concentration of 1 x10 cm3

Some of these phases are hygroscopic, causing the ceramics to swell and disintegrate in air.

To obtain the maximum dielectric constant, the pyrochlore phases have to be eliminated from the perovskite〜(除去されなければならない)

Identification of crystalline phases was accomplished by X-ray diffraction, aided when necessary by selected-area electron diffraction (SAD).

It is thus important to achieve product differentiation to produce unique products.

なんらかの形の生命が存在すると推測する speculate about the presence ofsome form of life

        これらの問題は、すべてなんらかの形で関連している。 All of these issues are linked in some way or another.

〜など >
〜forms solutions, tablets, vcapsules, etc.


     Petroleum, ore, coal, lumber, etc. are brought into Japan in tankers, ore carriers and bulk carriers。

     輸入する石油・鉱石・石炭・木材などはタンカー・鉱石専用船・バルクキャリア などにより運ばれる。

     また such as, for example, for instanceの後にetc.をつけるのは間違った使用例

     間違った使用例>such as A,B,C, etc.

内部標準として >
KCl was added to the powders as a internal standard.

Similar materials will be used for inner and outer combustor liners as well as high-pressure turbine nozzles and shrouds in the GE9X engine, projected to enter service in 2020.

   A silicon bond coat on the CMC, for adhesion of subsequent layers and for formation of a thermally grown oxide that inhibits inward oxygen diffusion and, therefore, minimizes oxidation of the SiC and attendant formation of CO gas.

Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.

Following binder burnout at 500 degC, the disks were fired in closed alumina crucibles at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1000 degC and at various times.

The same pigments have been used in overglazing for many years.

By comparison, the absence of an increase in er-values at 100 Hz and 1kHz in the air-sintered samples suggests a complete oxidation of the manganese ions to the +3 state.

 pellets were placed between PMN setters, with the binder burnt out at 500 degC for 4h.

   Measuring strength by diametral compression proved successful with both green and sintered pellets, with consistent results obtained for all of the sample mixes.


Following the art historian, one might try to identify and name these major periods of activity and our own attempt along these lines is summarized in Table I.

The development of PZT transducers is traced in Table I.

The following contents(以下の内容)

These were all sintered in flowing air.



relating to 〜   We have not been informed any news relating to the problem.


The pattern was obtained with 〜 〜を使ってそのパターンを得た。

         The pattern was obtained for 〜 〜についてそのパターンを得た。

         The pattern was obtained from 〜 〜からそのパターンを得た

〜については、〜に関しては >
For confirmation of crystallography, plan view TEM was conducted on films from both targets grown at 600℃.(〜については、〜)

    ( As for〜文頭にしか使えない、forは文頭に使える)

regarding 〜 〜に関しては〜である。Regarding〜は×、文頭には使えない。

        Confusion regarding signs may occur.

be related to 〜 例) Nobody knows that I'm related to that robbery.



The two values tended to 
increase with decreasing temperature regardless of composition.(〜にともなって〜する傾向だった)

          Bの増加にともなって、Aは増加する。  A increases with increasing B. 

           Density of ceramics increased with increasing sintering temperature.

                             The dielectric constant k and density were also found to increase with firing temperature.


The exothermic peak at approximately 400℃ is thought to be due to transformation of orthohombic PbO to tetragonal PbO.

          This is considered to be due to the PbO which cannot liberate the Nb2O5 from columbite at low temperatures.

          The peak was believed due to a relaxation phenomena.

(疑わしいけれども)〜によれば、〜する。>According to 〜, 文〜.

            According toには、”疑わしいけれども”というニュアンスが入っている

〜と(一般に)認識されている>It has been (generally) recognized that
 PMN lattice 〜.

〜と(一般に)認識されていた>It was (generally) recognized that

A slower rate allows for recognition of material, air being more successfully dispelled, as well as reduced crushing.

Fully 1:1 ordered ceramics are very similar to those of as-sintered samples.

   The results were similar to the samples sintered in air.

A similar behavior was observed with sintering time.

   Mixes 3 and 4 showed similar characteristics with very low values at 0% oxygen (0.35MPa) which rose to values of 1.0MPa at oxygen partial pressures of greater than 0.20.

私たちは似たような状況にいます。 We are in a similar situation.

In addition to 〜, 〜

Despite〜, 〜  例)Despite these results, 〜

>Prior to 〜, 文〜 例)Prior to measurements, 〜

 grinding, 〜

optimization in terms of the non-dimensional〜

    PMN pyrochlore was produced from solid state reaction of mixed oxide powders andvia a simple partial oxalate method with no need for pH control or expensive starting materials.

    A series of PMN-PT-based solid solutions were prepared by the solid state reaction technique.

    On heating, the e-E curve changed to a "quadratic like" anhysteretic

The lattice constant of the cubic fluorite phase increased linearly with increasing Bi3+ doping within the composition range of the single-phase fluorite structure.

The binary compositions corresponding to KNN and LNN in the systems NN-KN and LN-NN yield maximum in the piezoelectric properties.

On heating, the e-E curve changed to a "quadratic like" anhysteretic 

The latter attributing the grain size dependence of k on a grain boundary volume phenomena in which a second phase of low k (pyochlore, incompletely reacted phases, impurities, etc.) was distributed within the grain boundaries.

The addition of the binder prior to the second milling stage resulted in porosities up to〜30% lower.

These primary particles aggregate to form secondary particles, which have an average size of about 0.68 mm; this is nearly one third of the size of the secondary particles in the commercial praseodymium yellow pigment.

Table 2 shows the L*a*b* color coordinate data for the CeO pigments together with those of commercially available praseodymium yellow and chrome yellow.

Ceramic tableware for everyday use is often used with vinegar.

Pockels did, however, go on to establish the large quadratic electrooptic Kerr effect in Rochelle Salt.

Those obtained from the beam tests were approximately double the values given by diametral compression.

   Moreover, HLC have higher cell growth rate on XColl-Cell that on the negative control since cell doubling time is 4 d on XColl-Cell and 5 d on the negative control.

 to pray twice.

二度目の本四国霊場巡拝。The second pilgrimage to the sacred places of Shikoku



 The NaCl treated wet films were washed with water and were kept immersed in 20ml of 4m Genipin solution in PBS for 2h.



one aim of the work is to invetigate a doped PMNT system  〜

Since one aim of the work is to investigate a doped PMNT system which is capable of being sintered in less oxidising atmospheres, account has been taken of possible problems with electronic conduction due to loss of oxygen from the ceramic.

 The aim of this study was to develop collagen-based cellulose nanofibre reinforced materials having the required mechanical performance in body conditions and cytocompatibility(細胞適合性) to be used as artificial tendons or ligaments.


There is also scope for determining the minimum Mn concentration required to give rise to a sharp, ferroelectric response.

Following binder burnout at 500 degC, the disks were fired in closed alumina crucibles at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1000 degC and at various times.

  The effect of the binder on strength was investigated by burning of the binder at 500℃ and then cooling the samples prior to testing.


Although the porosity around fibers remains open and gases can access fiber surfaces, the process yields fully dense, crystalline SiC with high thermal conductivity and high creep resistance.

   Large thermal gradients may also be present within a ceramic component due to poor thermal conductivity between grains.

EBCs typically comprise rare-earth silicates that have thermal expansion coefficients comparable to that of SiC and that have an intrinsically low silica activity compared with native silica scale formed on SiC.

Valasek studied at the University of Wisconsin from 1921 to 1924.

 heat treatment device


To provide glass to obtain a glass which is not compacted and is 
thermodynamically stable.


To provide a polymer-stabilizing liquid crystal composition capable of improving thermal and dynamic stability and also lowering its driving electric voltage.




〜が望まれている、必要とされている、要求されている>〜 has been demanded
 to replace 〜

   Therefore, a novel pigment that can be replace the color of koiki is required by potteriesthat place a premium on traditional colors.

〜 such as  〜

In the case of 〜,

Among these attempts,  ( amongは「前文で示した3つ以上のもの」の中のうちという時に使う)

During 〜, 〜  During 11 hours of testimony, 〜 証言における11時間の間、〜

These points 
are elaborated in the following sections.

It should be mentioned here that these samples showed 〜

as a function of BaTiO3 concentration in BNT-BT system.

   The Ce and Bi concentrations in the 4% acetic acid solution were analyzed after the leaching test.

   An obvious compositionally-based mechanism would rest on the expected greater concentration of oxygen vacancies in these samples, since more of the manganese ions will be in the +2 state than in the air-sintered counterparts.

   Consequently, in order to estimate the concentrations of pyrochlore phase present in the different samples, eqn (1) has been applied to the diffraction patterns obtained, as given in Table 1.

Among them, anbout 30% quantum yield have been obtained for the water splitting on pretreated photocatalysts in an aqueous KOH solution (0.1 mol/%).

The intensity relationships of the banda are approximately the same for these bromo and chloro complexes except for the trans-dihalo complexes.

         The experimental values obtained were in good agreement with the theoretical values derived by following Nielsen's complex rule in the filler content range of 50-80vol% except at 90vol%.

人間界においては容姿端麗であることを除けば人と大きく変わるところはない。In the human world, there is very little difference between tennyo and humans asidefrom their beautifulappearance

はシーケンス (sequence) 型であり、中に入れるオブジェクトの型に制限があることを除けば、リストとまったく同じように振る舞います。

are sequence types and behave very much like lists, except that the type of objects stored in them isconstrained.

Finally, the effect of other first-row transition metal ions apart frommanganese on PMN or PMNT systems remains to be examined.

As expected, all compositions exhibited low values <5% while only the Z5T5 composition approached a 5% hysteresis value.

   With air atmosphere only, densities of 〜96%〜

   Only minuscule of Ce and Bi were detected.

   Unfortunately, the metaniobate is a tough ceramic to process, and through it has been the subject of considerable research because of its high hydrostatic sensitivity and low mechanical Q, it has found only specialized application.

Electrical measurements, made only on the denser bodies, required fired-on silver paste electrodes and subsequent hot poling in silicone oil.

These compositions were also found to densify at low temperatures and had grain size effects similar to that of 0.6PFN-0.4PNN.

The question remains as to whether the magnetic dipoles are independent of one another, or whether ordering, exchange interactions will come into play at higher manganese concentrations and/or lower temperatures.

   Prediction of cracking in these systems remains a significant challenge.

   Last, we may note that Rochelle Salt remains one of the few ferroelectric crystals with such a limited ferroelectric range and two clear Curie points.

   Dielectric constants increase with densification and ac losses remain relatively high.

In as much as the LiNbO3 composition was expected to have the most desirablecharacteristics for the application involved, most of the investigation was carried out using this material.

That isn't desirable for us either. It is not desirable to overbalance the budget.

Shrinkage of pellets following sintering was seen to be greater in the radial direction, owing to the reduced pressures applied to this face under compaction.





   Rung liverwort has never been studied so far. (ゼニコケについてはこれまで全く研究されなかった)


   There has been no study that tried to 〜

   There has been no study that tried to fabricate this ceramics. (このセラミックスの作成を試みた研究は今までなかった。)


   Little is known about 〜

   Little is known about the mechanisms and comprehension. (メカニズムと理解についてはほとんど分かっていない。)


   Very few attempts have been made at such study. (そのような研究についてはほとんど試みがなされてこなかった)


   It has been reported that 〜, but 〜 is unknown.

   It had been reported that fiber helped prevent diseases, but the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon was unknown.



   I am thinking that there is absolutely no problems concerning those

This is not a problem. このことは問題ではない。

A number of studies have been reported on new environment-friendly yellow pigments, but unfortunately, novel pigments which can show brilliant yellow color comparable to or higher than those of the conventional toxic ones have not been realized yet.

No significant difference was observed in the dielectric behavior of the annealed and unannealed samples below 200 .

   Particle size analysis was carried out on the slurry with a Malvern Mastersizer, in order to ensure that no significant change in particle size had occurred during milling.(明確な粒径の違いはなかった)

   No such evidence was obtained for 〜.

Calculation by Tanaka suggested that the (111) peak should be the strongest reflection, which differentiates pyrochlore from fluorite, but this reflection was not observed in the present work.

   Mix 1 did not seem sensitive to sintering atmosphere and the values of 23MPa (diametral compression) and 42 MPa (four-point bending) remained unaffected.

When heated in carbon dioxide, MnCO3 decomposed to MnO at 650 degC, as in air, but no oxidation was found to occur to Mn2O3 at higher temperatures.

However, this system could not be poled.

              〜 PbO noted in Fig.1 cannot be ascribed to an increased〜

    The length were in the micrometer range and the accurate(正確な) determination of length was not possible due to the entangled(もつれた) nature of the nanofibres networks.

   It is not possible to see individual cellulose nanofibrils in the range of 40 nm, as observed using AFM.

Furthermore, the LARS does not appear to be better than autograft (自家移植)at final short-term follow-up.

They were undetectable in the XRD spectra and even in the best SAD patterns.

Extremely poor electrical properties were obtained.

、ユーザに、結果が得られない理由を提供することができるreason that a result cannot be obtained can beprovided to a user.

This result is unexplained.

                                No explanation can be given at this time.

〜, and hence, it is not discussed further in this paper.

その問題を考慮しないことにする.exclude the problem from consideration

Within the limitations of the experimental technique, the latter scenario is not believed to apply to the present specimens. 

ならないということは〜>For a commercial process it is important to monitor sintering atomosphere to ensure that the oxygen content does not fall substantially below 20%.

Relaxor materials show no evidence of optical anisotropy or x-ray line splitting, even well below Tm.

The shifts in Tm were not only grain size dependent, butprocess related as well.

               Although not detected by x-ray diffraction, TEM has shown a second phase is a conductive phase.

Although we have not investigated the strain in these epitaxial InGaAs layers in detail yet, 

     実施していない  It hasn't been enforced.

 それは分別しにくい。That is hard to separate.

These and other studies provided useful information, however, a detailed explanation of the physical phenomena has not been generally provided in the literature.  

The exact nature of surfaces of dielectric powders in relation to process conditions , unfortunately, is not well understood at this time.

The effects of the dopants on the frequency dispersion of Tmax are unclear.

                             The grain size of the NKN powder was estimated to be about 100 nm and the contours were unclear.

Further work is needed to explore this effect. However, more work is needed to confirm this finding.

However, temperature coefficients and aging characteristics have still to be investigated.

In addition, visual observation did not detect any discoloration or loss of gloss of the paintwork after the leaching test.

 organic binders were used.

化学的に反応しない not reacting chemically

進行中である 現在行っている>
Further study is under way to pole PZT ceramics by corona discharge technique.

Although Pr yellow has been known as an environment-friendly inorganic yellow pigment for ceramics, the coloring powder is lacking in comparison with those of conventional toxic pigments.

We are currently investigating this hypothesis.

Moreover, attempts to refine site occupancy factors did not lead tosignificantly improved agreement indices.

Sintering aids as well as hot pressing have been used as alternatives to obtain high densities but such processing techniques are not always appropriate for industrial use.

Poling piezoelectric samples with the conventional dc technique has many disadvantages.

Prior to electroding, the sintered disks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to insure that little or no pyrochlore phase was present.

The relationship was found not to be linear as one would expect for a complete solid solution system.

知られていない>It is not known whether
 oxidation from the Mn to the Mn state takes place within a manganese oxide phase, or whether this occurs within the perovskite phase which forms at higher temperatures.

As a consequence of the three dimensional BO6 octahedral network, the presence of oxygen vacancies will not lead to a reduction in unit cell volume, but rather to the presence of additional space within the crystal structure.

By comparison, the absence of an increase in er-values at 100 Hz and 1kHz in the air-sintered samples suggests a complete oxidation of the manganese ions to the +3 state.

These are thought to perform a 'bridging function' between the polarisation clusters responsible for the relaxor-type responsible for the relaxor-type response in unsubstituted PMNT.

Clearly the first of these cannot be rationalized in terms of higher [Mn] concentrations in the CO2-sintered samples, so an alternative mechanism is required.

Here no direct oxidation to Mn2O3 is expected, so that any Mn3+ ions the final product would either be by direct oxidation within the perovskite phase, or alternatively via MnO.Mn2O3 as an intermediate.

The effect of sintering temperature in the range from 1200 to 1275 degC on phase formation was found to be insignificant, with a single phase of perovskite PMN (yield of 100% within the limitations of the XRD technique) obtained in all cases.

This rate of material loss is unacceptably high for engine components with expected lifetimes of many thousands of hours.

Unfortunately, it is impossible to provide a detailed discussion of all the developments since the perovskite families appeared on the scene in the early 1940s.

Porosities of 22% reduced failure strengths to only 25% of the values at low porosity levels.

First, Rochelle Salt is not stable against dehydration either in vacuum or in dry air.

He did not begin work on piezoelectrics until late in his forties and was still a lively experimenter into his 90th year.

Hardly any difference

 The use of higher partial pressures of oxygen produced no advantageous changes in the PTCR effect. This indicates that an air atmosphere is sufficiently oxidising to allow full diffusion of the additives into the matrix.

 thermal conductivity and a granular microstructure mean that these can be as a result of a number of conditions.

This suggests that these materials do not take up moisture after the initial phase and no change in dimentions or uptake occurs with time.

  After sterilzation the mechanical properties remained roughly unchanged for non-crosslinked nanocomposites whereas the tensiles strength increased and strain decreased for the crosslinked materials, suggesting possible crosslinking during the sterilization using the crosslinked materials have higher strength and lower strain than that requied for the target application.