さしすせそ note(=示す)>

さ><あかさたなページに戻る>

〜されている >PMN have been investigated extensively〜 調べられている

    Sintering has been reported to increase the pyrochlore〜 報告されている

    It has been reported that the electrostrictive〜 that以下が報告されている

〜されているように、〜 >, as previously reported. (先に報告されているように、〜)

〜をさらす、かける、与える、加える>The compositions were subjected to a profile〜

    the material is subjected to mains voltages.

    Some of the samples were subjected to a compressive stress of 250 MPa at room temperature

    As expected, different sized pellets, which were subjected to differing pressing pressures, showed only small variations in porosity.

 

残念ながら、〜>Unfortunately, 〜

最終的に、〜>Finally, 〜

(既に述べた事に加えて)さらに、〜である。>In addition, 〜 / Additionally, 〜 / Moreover, 〜 / Futhermore, 〜 / Also, 〜/ Further, 〜

  (Besides, 〜は口語、moreoverやfuthermoreの方があらたまった言い方、これらは最初の文の内容を補強する場合に使う) 

さらに、〜>Also, 〜 (注意:前文と後文の主語が同じ場合にのみ使える)

     Furthermore, the dielectric response of the Mn-doped ceramics depends strongly on the sintering atmosphere employed.

さらに、その上、また>Moreover,〜

    Additionally, the time spent above a certain temperature during sintering appears to be important to the densification process, as shown by the lower porosities of samples prepared in the production furnace.

 

〜させて頂きたい>The authors would like to thank〜

〜に先立って〜>each temperature was maintained for 4 min. prior to each measurement.

           The cellulose is burned off between 350 and 550prior to sintering.

〜に先立って〜>Prior to measurement, samples were poled in oil at 40 kV/cm for 15 min at room temperature.

                             Prior to electroding, the sintered disks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to insure that little or no pyrochlore phase was present.

    Prior to introduction of a matrix, SiC fibers are coated by chemical vapor deposition(CVD) with BN and a protective layer of either SiC or Si3N4.

先の〜>Previous work on our sol-gel PZT has shown that 〜

 の研究>In previous work, attention has been focused on B-site doping with ions in oxidation state +4, i.e. in the system PMN-PZ and PMN-PT, with all sintering carried out in air.

      Cellulose nanofibres were isolated by mechanical fibrillation using ultra fine grinder followed by a high- pressure homogenizer and have been reported in our earlier studies.

上述したように、〜先に示したように、〜 >As mentioned above, the use of strongly acidic cation 〜

最近、〜>Recently, 〜    There has recently been an extensive study of the development of ZrO2〜

     More recently, there has been some〜(つい最近、〜)

     The demand for lead-free ceramics has grown considerably in the last decade.(ここ十年の間に)

    The demand for lead-free ceramics has grown considerably in the last decades.(ここ数十年の間に)

     In recent years, 〜   ここ数年

最近の〜>  The coloration of the latter pigments is derived from iron and antimony.

最近までは、〜>Until recently, the crystal chemistry

作動させた>The samples were placed in a test chamber, which could be operated between -180 and +250℃.

さらなる〜>Further studies on this system are in progress and will be reported elsewhere.

    Further work was conducted on pressing pressure with mix4 (Fig.7).

〜でさえも〜>They were undetectable in the XRD spectra and even in the best SAD patterns.

      TGA experiments revealed no significant weight loss under the synthesis conditions of Fig.1, even for pure PbO specimens, obviating one of the

最大の maximum / 最小の minimum

最小の>For instance, matrices should have minimal porosity and consist of high-conductivity (crystalline) phases for the through-thickness composite conductivity to be high.

最高の〜の温度>The temperatures of maximum relative permittivity and maximum dissipation factor are summarised in Table 2 and 3.

    The highest stress (~55MPa) is shown by genipin crosslinked collagen/cellulose nanocomposites with 75wt% CNFs.

 

最大の〜>The largest ordered regions (200 nm) are observed in x=0.5, which was previously shown to also exhibit the highest order-disorder transition temperature.

    Mix 1 showed the largest resistance change of over three decades, with a switching temperature of 145℃.

    The largest deviation in relative density was no greater than 1.6% and, in general, was less than 1%.

 

最大値は〜>The maximum value of d33 of the H-MW specimen sintered with the MW process is 350pC/N at a grain size of 2.1mm.

      The 0.1 wt% K2CO3-added specimen showed the maximum d33=274 pC/N.

      The maximum kp of the specimen was 0.494 at a poling temperature of 20 degC, and kp decreased abruptly at a temperature higher than 20 degC.

                         It is evident from Fig.1 that PNN exhibits a frequency dispersion of the dielectric maximum, i.e., the maximum dielectric constant increases and shifts to lower temperatures as the frequency is decreased.

    Santis et al. reported that natural ligaments have a max strength of 28MPa and strain of 30% whereas tenders have a maximum stress of 38MPa and strain of 18%.

 

最高で〜、最大で〜>The reflectivity of the InP/SiO2/Si interface is estimated to be 0.45 at maximum in the IR range for

     An average grain size of 0.5 to 1.5 mm was observed for samples fired at 900 degC or less short durations (<2h), with the grain size increasing to a maximum of about 4 microns for samples fired at 900 degC to 10 h and/or 1000 degC for 5 h.

    Grain growth of barium titanate has been shown to increase to a maximum at 1240℃ where grains nominally 60μmin diameter are produced, before decreasing to 10μm by 1360℃.

 

最高の〜>Although the sample with a composition of CeO exhibited the highest absorption at long wavelength, the optical reflection in the visible region decreases in this sample due to the presence of Bi2O3 as an impurity.

最終的に ultimately

採用した>the following approximation proposed by Tanaka was employed.

採択した>A similar approach is to be adopted here in order to rationalise the observed trends in behaviour.

さまざまなデータ>Various data obtained by the XRD and SEM analyses indicated that +文

               Figure 2 shows the relationship between Tc's (at various frequencies) as a function of the composition.

                The dielectric properties of 0.6PFN-0.4PNN with 0.04PT samples fired at various times and temperatures are also reported in Table I.

さまざまな温度>The micrographs of PMN ceramics sintered at various temperatures from 1200 to 1300 are shown in Fig.5.

様々な〜、いくつかの、>Several researchers studied piezoelectric materials 〜

作動温度>These systems have a very narrow range of working temperature.

最小化すること>This procedure was found to be very effective for minimizing the PbO-loss as well as

最初に、第一に primarily / 次に Next,〜

第一に、第二に、第三に、最後に、〜>First, 〜 Second,〜 Third,〜 ,Finally, 〜.

最初に>Ferroelectricity in BNT was initially reported by Tanaka in 1959.    Initially all compositions appeared .

        try 〜 first  最初に〜を試してみる

at the beginning, 〜    First of all, I will read this.

最後に、〜>Lastly, 〜

明らかな差、違いである。>This is a significant difference.

わずかな差、>a slight difference

〜の差は〜、〜の違いは〜>The difference in the leakage characteristics of the PT and Ru capacitors is

〜される(確実に) >Further studies on this system are in progress and will be reported elsewhere.

〜されるべきである>To serve as a substrate for nucleation and growth of the desired phase, the template particles should be thermodynamically stable at the TGG process temperature.

三元系の>A suitable nonlead replacement of lead-based piezoelectrics can be found in the LN-NN-KN ternary system.

作製するための>TGG is a ceramic processing method for producing textured ceramics.

    An X-Y plotter was used to produce load-deflection curves from which the onset of cracking could be estimated.

作成される>The matrix then is created by one or more of four processing routes.

作成中、進行中>Work on all these questions is currently in progress.

〜を指す(示している)>Here Iperov and Ipyro refer to the intensities of the {110} perovskite and {222} pyrochlore peaks, respectively.

捧げる>A great deal of effort has recently dedicated to the manufacturing and engineering of lead-containing relaxor perovskite compounds.

避ける、回避する>Procedures established in the cited study to avoid this problem were followed in the present work.

避けられない>Steam-an inevitable byproduct of hydrocarbon-is particularly problematic for SiC/SiC composites.

 

最適化>生産最適化 production optimization    生産の最適化 optimization of production

           The composition of these pigments has been optimizedand their color properties have been found to be suitable for Arita ware.

    PMN ceramics of high density and optimized dielectric properties may be produced by use of a sintering method employing platinum foil and a PMN atmosphere powder.

    Optimization of the entire sintering profile, including heating and cooling rates, has led to excellent PTCR characteristics.

    Therefore, further optimization of the composition and the degree of crosslinking will be required to match the performance of the developed composites for the targeted product.

 

最適な>To set an optimum defocus value, an optimum detrack value, and an optimum tilt value in a disk device and an adjusting method thereof.

    Neson and Coak investigated the optimum milling time and ball materials as well as the effects of contamination from processing.

〜はさておき、〜>Apart from these specific questions, the existence of a macroscopic rhombohedral symmetry

〜サイドの〜>It should be mentioned that through the diffused E maxima and relaxor-type behavior were reported in some NaNbO3-BaTiO3 solid solution ceramics, the relaxor-like compositions belong to the BaTiO3-rich side of this system and are therefore out of scope of the present work.

〜を参考にしながら〜>using examples from 〜

それは私たちにとって参考になる That will be useful for us as a reference

〜されやすい>People think I am easily swayed. 人々は私を影響されやすい人間だと思っている。

作成された〜>the Japanese maps created by Ino Tadataka    伊能忠敬によって作成された日本地図

サンプル、試料>

     The specimen, 0.5 in. in diameter by 0.125 in. thick, was embedded in a fine high purity zirconia powder which acts as a pressure-transmitting medium.

合成されたガラス       Synthesized glass

合成された粉末→いいかえ→サンプル(samples, specimens)

            Bar-shaped specimens(バー状の試料)

            sample compositions(サンプルの組成)

            The air-sintered sample (大気焼成したサンプル)

            Mn-doped sample(マンガンドープしたサンプル)

            The CO2-sintered x=0.0223 sample

            Sample that had incerased dielectric constants also had increased temperature coefficients.  (〜した試料は、〜した)

  Samples were ball milled in isopropyl alcohol with

             The sample compositions were measured by X-ray fluorescencee spectroscopy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical values.

     Disk-shaped samples for dielectric measurement of thickness 1.5 mm were sawn out of the sintered pellets.

     The air-sintered sample exhibits smaller permittivity levels

     〜 in Mn-doped samples.

     where the relaxor-propeties of the CO2-sintered x=0.0223 sample are to

他の知られている材料>The ageing characteristics of poled samples, and comparison with other known materials, would also provide indirect information on the domain structure of the air-sintered Mn-doped PMNT system.

    This material also had the lowest porosity.

 

算出した>The sintered disks were then round parallel with 12 micron m Al2O3 powder and geometrical densities were calculated.

算出値>Then this calculated value is set as the binary threshold.

差異を>Considering the difference in the color coordinates between Table 2 and Table 3, it is preferable that the a* value of the pigment powder is as positively large as possible, because it is decreased significantly after overglazing.

     This difference in behaviour is attributed to verying oxidation states of the manganese ions, it being proposed that that air-sintered samples contain predominantly Mn3+-ions.

      Differences in dielectric response between air-and CO2-sintered samples are observed for all manganese concentrations.

再現する>These results demonstrate that the medium yellow pigment traditionally used in Arita ware but which contains lead and antimony can be faithfully replicated by the present CeO pigment, which does not contain any toxic elements.

    This value has previously been used successfully to obtain accurate and repeatable results.

再構成> Figure 3b shows the cross-section of collagen film obtained after pH-induced fibrillation consisting of regenerated collagen fibrils (indicated by arrows) in a matrix phase of non-fibrous collagen so indicating that a partial fibrillation of collagen has occurred during the process.

〜を避けるために> To avoid elution and discoloration, it is essential that the overglazing of such ceramics and porcelains posses excellent chemical resistance to acids.

酸化状態>In CO2-sintered samples, by comparison, the manganese ions exist in both +2 and +3 oxidation states.

酸化雰囲気>A more oxidizing atmosphere produces only limited advantages-a small but significant increase in strength.

探した>Direct evidence for these could be sought by chemical etching, followed by SEM.

Bサイト>Thus the mean ionic radius of the B-site ions prior to substitution is XXXX.

捧げられる>A great deal of effort has recently been dedicated to the manufacturing and engineering of lead-containing relaxor perovskite compounds.

残留〜>However, even under the best circumstances, residual porosity is 10%-15%.

    The residue is nearly transparent and is not mistaken as the residue of the agrochemical.  残留物は、ほぼ透明であり「農薬の残留」と誤解されるおそれはない。

   この状態では、基板表面には粘着材が残留している。In this state, the adhesive material is remaining on the substrate surface.

   for removing the matter remained in a pipe(パイプ内の残留物)

細分する>To further subdivide about this early period, one may note that, for a long time, from the late 1890s to 1935, a single interesting crystal was the sole object for study.

削除>Localized removal of BN and formation of a glassy phase at the interface also are evident.

削減>Ueyama et al. have shown that the preparation of a dense pressing can lead to higher fired densities and strengths as well as a reduction in the sintering temperature required.

最中>At present we are in the midst of the age of integration, in which many electroceramic components are being incorporated into thick-film circuits, thin-film circuits, or multilayer packages.

除外される>In all of the tests the binder was burnt off in air so that the effect of residual hydrocarbons within the matrix may be ruled out.

サイクル>The short time cycles employed in this process greatly inhibited the degree of crystal growth in the specimen.

査定する>Density measurements were used to assess the porosity of the pressed and sintered pellets.

作用する>この酸が解毒剤の作用するThe acid acts as functions as an antidote.

殺菌>Bio-based fibrous nanocmposites of cellulose nanofibers and non-crosslinked/crosslinked collagen we’re prepared by in situ (本来の場所で)pH-induced fibrillation of collagen phase and sterilized (殺菌)using gamma rays at 25KGy.

     The sterilization was carried out using gamma rays at 25KGy.

細胞>Cell differentation(細胞分化) was performed using 1,9, and 15 d inclusion(含有) periods.

サポート>This result indicates that crosslinked samples show better stability after sterilization(殺菌) and further supports the use of cross-linked materials in the development of artiuficial ligaments and tendons.

産業界>産業界からの「要望書」の提出The submission of a request by the industry,

日本の産業界ではロボットがどんどん使われている.Japanese industry is making increasing use of robots.


し><あかさたなページに戻る>

その(図、表)から明かなようにAs can be seen from the (figure/table ), 〜

         As presented in Table II, 〜

〜したように、〜>   As reported in the previous work on ferrimagnetic oxides,

        As presented above, 〜 (上で提示したように、上に示したように、上述したように、先述したように)

その図から示されるように、〜>As shown in Figs.8 and 9, there is 〜

        The splitting in the peak, shown in Fig.2, suggests the〜

図解したように、〜>As illustrated in Table III, the sample〜

 

図3に〜を示す>Figure 3 shows the microstructure〜

      Figure 2 displays the XRD patterns 〜

       図1(a)と1(b)に Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show the photographs of as-grown〜

      〜 are shown in Fig.4. 又は 〜 as shown in Fig.4.

      In fact, as we can see in Fig.4, the dielectric〜

              Table 2 also shows the band-gap energies (Eg) of the CeO pigments.

    Figure 1 shows the X-ray patterns of samples with some selected compositions.

    XRD patterns of the PMN ceramics formed at various sintering temperatures are given in Fig.2.

    Table 3 gives(与える、提示する?) the sorption data and Figure 7 shows the sorption curves.

 

< Figureの表記に関して> 文頭の場合はFigure 1 shows 〜とfigureはフルスペルで表示 すること

次の場合は最初から省略表示にする 〜shown in Fig.5.     In Fig.5, several micro cracks were 〜

    This is shown graphically in Fig.5 and appears in Table I.

 

     The changes in the sintered density, Tc and the dielectric properties of this solid solutions of BaO are given in Table I.

     注意> 表番号は、数字ではなく、ローマ字表示にすること Table 1 × ⇒ Table I ○

      The physical and dielectric properties of PMN samples as a function of sintering conditions are reported in Table II.

       〜の変数として〜

〜に示すのは〜>Shown in Fig.1 is the intensity of the circularly (図1に示すのは〜である。)

図4は、that以下を示している>Figure 4 shows that there is only〜

    The results are similar with our earlier reports on collagen crosslinking using gluteraldehyde, indicating that Genipin is a viable option for crosslinking collagen.

 

図の表現のひとつ>Here, maximum densisties have been calculated from the observed lattice parameters (Fig.1), assuming a d-value equal to x. 

式は〜 Equation (1) shows that a plot of ln(-dP(t)/dt) vs t should

〜はthat以下を示している。>The presence indicates that the fraction is not 100%.

      This result indicates that the step is 〜

      These light I-V characteristics and spectral response results indicate that InP/Si substrates are promising 〜

      This indicates that all of the metal species were retained within

〜は、that以下を示した>Various data indicated that the reaction products 〜

    Diffraction patterns for all fourteen sintered samples ( seven sintered in air and seven in CO2 ) indicated that, to a good approximation, a cubic unit cell with lattice parameter a0 could be adopted in all cases.

〜を示す、示された>The results is presented in Table 1.

      Figure 6 and 7 present the compositional effects on 〜.

      These data exhibit the same general trends of increasing e with t, as earlier shown in Fig.1(b) for (001)-oriented crystal.

    Mix 1 exhibited a small decrease in switching temperature at high (≧0.8bar) oxygen partial pressures.

 

観察された>The material was shown to exhibit a quadratic electro-optic effect and a second order transition.(示す >発現する)

〜で示した〜は>The data shown in this table has been collected from〜.

〜は〜を示した。(表した)>The composition exhibits a more complicated response〜

    Mix 1 exhibited a small decrease in switching temperature.

    Because of this porosity, the composites exhibit low throught-thicness conductivity and low interlaminar strength.

    Mixes 3 and 4 showed little change.

           All sample exhibited strong optical absorption at wavelength below 500 nm.

         It is evident from Fig.1 that PNN exhibits a frequency dispersion of the dielectric maximum, i.e., the maximum dielectric constant increases and shifts to lower temperatures as the frequency is decreased.

 

示す>特性・性質を示す>Piezoelectric phenomena exhibited by certain piezoelectric crystals, polarized polymers, and composites are used in a number of electromechanical transducer applications, including vibration, pressure, and stress sensors, as well as hydrophones.

    The film surface showed few collagen fibrils with gap patterns indicating that fibrillation collagen is present in the nanocomposites and are marked with arrows in the image.

 

ある種の圧電結晶や分極後高分子、そしてコンポジットによって現れる圧電現象は、〜に用いられている。

示す、現す>The air-sintered sample exhibits smaller permittivity levels than its CO2-sintered counterpart.

〜は示した>As illustrated in Table 3, the samples of T5, Z5T5, B5T5, and S5T5 exhibited unexpected increases in Qeff.

〜はthat以下を指摘した(提示)した>Tanaka pointed out that modification of BNT with BiScO3 results in better piezo properties.

that以下を証明した。(する)>We demonstrate that film can be achieved 〜

          These results conclusively demonstrate that the processing technique used here is very suitable for making alkali-based ceramics.

note文>------------------------------------------------------------------

that以下であることが示された。>It was noted that 〜

that以下であることもまた示された。>It was also noted that 〜

----------------------------------------------------------

調べた> Microstructures of sintered pellets were examined by SEM.

    The specimens were examined after testing on the scanning electron microscope (Cambridge S600) to establish the point of crack initiation.

 

(特性が)調べられた、確認された>〜 were characterized by〜 

〜は調べている、調査している。研究している>This study investigates the temperature dependence 〜

 

〜は、that以下を示唆=ほのめかす,提案する、それとなく言う、示す)している>

   These observation suggest that grain growth is not〜

   Tanaka et al. suggested that the gel induced〜

   They suggested that 〜

   These reaction sequence suggests that formation of PMN depends directly on 〜

〜は、〜を示唆(ほのめかす)している>This result suggest the formation of 〜

    Although X-ray diffraction suggested the subsequent decomposition in air of Mn2O3 to Mn3O4 at 1000 degC, evidence of this decomposition could only be obtained in DTA for samples subjected to preheating in air for 24h at 650 degC.

 

that 以下は自然である>Since the template are randomly, it is natural that tha large〜

    It was perhaps natural that a number of these PbO2 materials should be tried as third components to modify the system PT:PZ.

 

< 〜が知られている >---------------------------------------

〜が知られている >It is (well) known that 文〜      It is well-known that for A=C.

    This composition is known to exhibit 〜.(〜することが知られている)

     These observations are consistent with the known oxidation behaviour of cobalt.(一般に知られている〜)

     〜using conventional known gelling agents. 従来から知られているゲル化材を用いて

知られている>One of the best-known materials in the lead-based relaxor family is PMN.(もっとも良く知られている)

知られている〜>planet known since antiquity(古代から知られている惑星)

〜と(一般に)知られている(認識されている)>It has been (generally) recognized that PMN lattice 〜.

〜と(一般に)信じられている>The effective surface tensional stress are believed to play an important role.

〜として知られている>a slightly brownish yellow pigment with a high transparency known as kibi-iro

    There are two kind of traditional yellow pigments used in the overglazing of Arita ware: a slightly brownish yellow pigment with a high transparency known as kibi-iro and reddish yellow pigments with high chromatic contrasts known as koiki, chuuki, and usuki.

知られていない>It is not known whether oxidation from the Mn to the Mn state takes place within a manganese oxide phase, or whether this occurs within the perovskite phase which forms at higher temperatures.

----------------------------------------------------------

〜は使用された>Ball miling was used for all mixing and processing.

    The weak-field measurements were taken with a HP computer.(用いた)

             Many of today's multilayer ceramic capacitors employ costly precious metal internal electrodes.

    A gas analyzer was used to control the conditions which were maintained until the samples had cooled to below 300℃.

    A cloth polishing wheel was used for finishing of the tensile surfaces.

    Ball milling was used for all mixing and processing,

    The precursors were prepared by ball milling the appropriate amount of reagent grade oxides Fe2O3 or NiO with optical grade Nb2O5 in distilled water for 12 hours using zirconia milling media.

〜の使用>The use of binders, or die lubricants, aid the pressing process in this way by wetting the powder.

水の使用 Use of Water

使用して〜>The electrical resistivity (p) was determined by applying 100V across selected samples at room temperature using a pico-ampmeter, with the current value being recorded after 1 minute.

〜に使用し> The fractured surface of crosslinked collagen, shown in Figure 3c, was smoother, and two phases (fibrous and non-fibrous) were not easily identifiable.

 

使用した〜は、〜>The sintering profile used is shown in Fig.1.

使える、使用できる>In the present work, we demonstrate that third harmonic generation (THG) of light can be used in single-shot experiments to 〜(THGがシングルショット機器に使用できる)

〜下で、〜>Thus, long (xxxx) will depend on both the temperature and the pressure under these experimental conditions.

〜した〜は、〜>The dielectric properties of 0.9PMN-0.1PT calculated from Eq.1 are shown in Fig.1.

〜した時、〜>However, when the PbO was increased to x=0.1, the (331) ordering reflection

〜した時、〜>When an electric field is applied, two relaxative processes occur

〜時に〜>Roth participants can withdraw money at retirement without incurring a single penny of income tax.(退職時に)

    The molar Ce:Zr ratio was kept constant at 55:45 to give the deepest yellow hue while the ratio of bismuth was increased from 0 to 23 mol%.

しかしながら、〜である。However, 〜(butはしゃべる時に使う口語、雑誌で使用される事もある)

              〜, however, it has not been〜.

したがって、それゆえに〜>Therefore, 〜 or  Consequently,〜 or  Accordingly, 〜 or  Hence, 〜 or  Thus, 〜

    Consequently, the CeO pigment has the most yellowish hue, it is comparable with that of the commercial praseodymium yellow.

    However, annealing in air allowed the diffusion to take place and hence produced a material which exhibited very similar PTCR properties to that sintered in air.

 

したがって、〜>Accordingly, it was decided to investigate acceptor dopants, the anticipated function of these being to reduce the concentration of free electrons in the conduction band to minimal levels.

〜の上昇にしたがって、〜の増加にしたがって>With increasing temperature, With increasing levels of terbium,

                As temperature increased, the amount of perovskite〜

〜にしたがって〜>The intensity increased with increasing La-content〜(La量が増加するにしたがって強度は増加した)

             In addition to the observed K dependency, the temperature Tm increased with decreasing grain size.

〜に従って、〜を行った>In accordance with a structural model proposed earlier, attempts were also made to refine a structural model

    Sample preparation followed that described previously, making sure that the loading surfaces were parallel and free from large defects.

 

〜である。したがって、〜である。>Thus, 〜 ( Soは口語、文章ではthusが良い)

〜である。したがって、〜である。>Therefore, 〜

          (Thereforeは、thusよりも論理的なニュアンスがあり、議論や説明の結論を言う時に主に使う、As a result, 〜の意味に近い)

〜の事情で、〜のせいで、〜のおかげで、〜のために、>Owing to the prohibition on the use of Pb-based materials, the demand for Pb-free ceramics has grown〜

事情>In view of these many special problems, one must conclude that the early workers were in many ways highly unlucky in being presented with Rochelle Salt as their only model material, and that under the circumstances their work was truly outstanding.

 

事実、〜>In fact, 〜(Indeedよりもあらたまった言い方、論文向き?) / Indeed, 〜

           (In fact, Indeedは、最初の文をもう少し詳しく説明する場合に使う)

事実上、>First, producing uniform coatings on fiber surfaces within woven fabrics is virtually impossible because of fiber-fiber contacts.

that以下という事実は〜>The fact that both Pt and Ru control nucleation of the PZT film is supported by

    The fact that this gene is expressed confirms the results obtained regarding HLC adhesion on XColl-Cell and suggests the formation of focal adhesion points.

 

実際のところ、〜>Actually, in this case I(002) is even greater than I(200).

    The actual specimen temperature was established by a duplicate run in which a fine-probe thermocouple was inserted into the center of the die by way a small axial hole in an equivalent-sized top plunger.

that以下は重要である>For a commercial process it is important to monitor sintering atomosphere to ensure that the oxygen content does not fall substantially below 20%.

    It is important that 文.

    It is important to note that the crossover from .

〜は重要である、重要性をもつ>be of importance

   Synthetic iron oxide pigments are of great economical importance due to〜

〜は重要である>It is important to evaluate and understand these property changes in the context of domain wall motion.

           It is thus important to achieve product differentiation to produce unique products.

    Oxygen is clearly very important in the thermodynamics of grain growth and densification.

    For a commercial process it is important to monitor sintering atmosphere to ensure that the oxygen content does not fall substantially below 20%.

 

〜that以下は重要である、不可欠である>To avoid elution and discoloration, it is essential that the overglazing of such ceramics and porcelains posses excellent chemical resistance to acids.

〜の重要性>The importance of these distortions, which are allowed in rhombohedral has also been 〜

  The significance of these observations for this atudy ia as follows.<意義、重要性>

          The significance of these observations for this study is as follows.

さらに重要なことには、>More importantly, because of stress elevations in the axial tows between these strain concentration sites, fiber bundle rupture preferentially initiates in these regions.

重要な>Truly an era of "high" scientific endeavor during which ferroelectrics evolved in the solid state physics community from crystallographers' toys to the pivotal prototypes for the description of displacive solid-solid phase transitions.

〜は〜と主張した。(された)>The generally accepted inhomogeneous microregion model postulated by Smolenskiiet al.

〜は〜を試算した(見積もった)>We estimated the real value of Km, without porosity, using Wiener's rule.

    Q was estimated from the slop.

〜が主題である>These studies are the subject of this paper.

〜が生じる。起こる。結果となる>Tanaka pointed out that modification of BNT with BS results in better piezo properties.

〜周辺に、〜付近に>The piezoelectric properties have a broad maximum in the vicinity of the KNN.

そのケースでは、しばしば〜>As often is the case, 〜.

しばしば、たいてい〜>〜 the piezoelectric response is often attributed to progressive excitation of 〜

    Ceramic tableware for everyday use is often used with vinegar.

    The conditions to which semiconducting barium-titanate devices are subjected often result in thermal stresses which may be large in magnitude.

上述したように、〜先に示したように、〜 >As mentioned above, the use of strongly acidic cation 〜 しっかりと strongly / 強く strong

上記の、上述した〜>The above results provide a strong indication that the dielectric〜

    The above data suggests that the properties of this capacitor are

            The above system was selected based on the low firing characteristics of PFN (<900°C) and the relatively high dielectric constants exhibited by all three end members.

 

上限である>100 is the upper bound for the usage of the MPB composition in this system.

    In comparison with corresponding properties of superalloys, SiC/SiC composites have about one-third the mass density and 100K-200K higher upper use temperatures.

進行中であり、〜>Further studies on this system are in progress and will be reported elsewhere.

進行中、作成中>Work on all these questions is currently in progress.

〜を進化させた、発展させた、展開させた>First an optimized processing procedure was evolved for obtaining the dense ceramics of each composition.

実用的な〜>〜 to determine the range of practical application.

    These ceramics can be made virtually free of the residual porosity which is often difficult and at times practically impossible to overcome when using conventional processing techniques.

実用化される>実用化される be put to practical use / come into practical use

     Urashima will be put to practical use within five years.  うらしまは5年以内に実用化されるでしょう。

     If the products can be developed for practical use, they will have many applications in medical treatment.

     製品が実用化されると、医療のさまざまな用途に使うことがで きるでしょう。

     The company plans to put the scooter in practical use by 2005.

     同社はこのスクーターを2005年までに実用化する計画です。

実現した、得られた>In this case, heat treatment at 1300 ℃ for 24h yielded completely 1:1 ordered samples for all values of x.

                                  For both firing conditions shown in Fig.3, a very large increase in resistivity was found for additions of MnO as low as 0.005wt% with further improvements being realized with increasing amounts of MnO.

    By the early 1950s, ceramic piezoelectric transducers based on BaTiO3 were becoming well established in a number of both civil and military applications.

実現可能>The study shows that genipin crosslinking of collagen-cellulose nanocomposites provides a viable(実現可能) route to develop biocompatible materials for artificial ligament/tendon application without compromising(疑うような) on the mechanical performance or moisture stability.

徐々に、だんだんに>The Tc of this composition progressively shifted to lower temperatures with increasing substitutions of BaO in the perovskite lattice.

                                     Similarly, in Fig.6, dT falls gradually in CO2-sintered samples, approaching that of air-sintered ceramics at higher manganese-levels.

徐々に、〜なる>As the stress increases, the polarization in the sample gradually becomes orthogonal to the applied load.

    Further support for the co-existence of Mn and Mn ions in CO2-sintered is provided by the gradual rise in T(er,max) observed in Fig.4.

    Mix 2 showed the smallest resistivity change as well as the shallowest gradient, with a switching temperature at about 150℃.

順次〜>solvent and alkoxide were sequentially added.

従来の、通常の>The ceramics were fabricated using the conventional oxide-mixing technique. / the mixed oxide method / the solid-state reaction method /

実現した、もたらした>This route has produced very high perovskite contents, typically>90%, but after sintering 〜

実施する、発動する>Here considerations of ionic radius were invoked to rationalize the observed variation in dielectric properties with dopant concentration in terms of changes in the underlying crystal structure.

実施>For practical implementation, this route is combined with one involving precursor-derived ceramics or melt infiltration (described below).

 

詳細に〜>The PLD system has been described in detail elsewhere.

       Although we have not investigated the strain in these epitaxial InGaAs layers in detail yet, 〜(まだ詳細に調べていない)

詳細な〜>A more detailed analysis of the powder pattern indicated some additional〜(より詳細な分析)

       More detailed measurements were made on the x=0.5 composition, which lies at the boundary between the relaxor and normal sides of the system.

詳細>Details of the film preparation and characterization are reported elswhere.

    Details of the chemical additions are shown in Table ?

 

質問、疑問は残る>However, the question remains as to whether the cation order in the niobates can be altered by thermal treatment.

定性的に(質的に)>The parameter L* represents the brightness or darkness of a color relative to a neutral grey scale, while the parameters a* (the red-green axis) and b*(the yellow-blue axis) qualitatively express the color.

証拠、痕跡を見せない>Furthermore, small-angle resonant X-ray scattering measurements on PMN showed no evidence for compositional segregation between the ordered domains and the disordered matrix.

証拠、根拠>No such evidence was obtained for straightforward heating rates of up to 12 degC per min.

    There is evidence that a high purity single phase perovskite powder of composition PMN will not, by itself, give rise to pyrochlore-free PMN ceramics.

動く、進展する、進む>The growth process is driven by the difference in surface free energy between the template and the matrix grains during thermal processing.

シンプルにするために、整理するために、〜に限った、制限した>Hence, for simplicity, the discussion is limited to the competition

シンプル(もっともシンプル)>Among the composites studied so far, the simplest types are the ones with 0-3 connectivity.

試験的な試みとして>A tentative estimate, 〜

〜しやすいように〜、〜に便利なように>For convenience of discussion,

〜しなくてはならない、〜のはずだ、〜のはずである>The stability of fluorite relative to perovskite should increase with PbO excess or deficiency, as reflected in Fig.8, particularly for a > 1 and b < 0.

〜しなければならない>To obtain the maximum dielectric constant, the pyrochlore phases have to be eliminated from the perovskite 〜(除去されなければならない)

    To induce piezoelectricity in ferroelectric ceramics, an electric field must be applied to swich the polar of crystallites to the symmetry-allowed directions nearest to that of the applied electric field.

〜しなければならない>However, temperature coefficients and aging characteristics have still to be investigated.

それ自身の〜>Each Pb/Ti solution was assayed for its oxide content 〜

それ自体は>The presence of oxygen vacancies, in itself, will alter the distribution of negative charges within the crystal structure, also affecting the dipole moments.

シナリオはthat以下>One possible scenario is that partial ordering develops uniformly

支持されている、裏付けされている>This is further supported by the observation that small perovskite reflections were found by XRD〜

支持体>The use of carbon susceptors was eliminated because of the strong reducing action of carbon on the niobate powders at elevated temperatures.

    The susceptor is 3 in. in diameter and 2 in. high.

that以下に注目するのは重要である>It is important to notice that this induced 〜

習慣に従って、〜>By convention, the acoustic energy density can be defined as

〜状の試料は〜>Bar-shaped specimens of dimensions 3 mm x 3mm x 6mm were machined out of the as-received PZT,

〜上での〜>PZT films grown on Pt were characterized by

〜種類のFive types of capacitors were prepared for this study.

         There are two kinds of traditional yellow pigments used in the overglazing of Arita ware.

自発的に spontaneously 

自由に freely

実験的に〜>The model was experimentally confirmed in PZT films.

実験>Using an arrangement of green pellets as shown in Fig.1, four sets of sintering experiments were carried out: (i) in air, (ii) inside a closed alumina crucible, (iii) inside a closed alumina crucible containing a PMN atmosphere powder; and (iv) inside a platinum foil and closed alumina crucible with PMN atmosphere powder.

 

若干〜、やや〜>   , but the (101) reflection was somewhat stronger.

市販の commercially 

実際に actually

首尾よく、うまく successfully

主要な、主な>The chief determining factor was the accuracy of the balance.

     chiefは「ある集まりの中でもっとも重要な、偉い?〜」とい う感じ

      There is no induction period between the first evolution of gas and the main acceleration of the reaction.

      mainは「ある集まりで中心的な〜」という感じ

      The allicins and sulfides are presumed to be the principal source of aroma and flavor of allium species.

    Here the temperature dependence of properties is much the same, the principal difference being the relative value of the property considered.

    The principal evaluation of the piezoelectric activity was a measure of the radial coupling coefficient 24 hours after poling.

      principalは「ある集団の中で主力な〜」という感じ 〜

      melting point either higher or lower than that of the major component.

      majorは「主要なとか主流の〜」という感じ

主要部>Along with packaging materials and magnetic ferrites, they account for a major portion of the electroceramics market.

    The majority (64%) of HLC adhere on X-Coll/Cell 75-Gen with a round-shaped morphology: this result demonstrates a lower cell attachment potential and adhesion on XColl-Cell than on the negative control.

 

十分な sufficient (enoughよりも堅い語) / 十分に sufficiently

十分に〜>A fully saturated P-E loop was obtained at

    the powders following the 300 treatment is sufficiently low to preclude

     This sample showed kp of 0.17 and d33 of 98pC/N measured by d33 meter, although our poling condition was not sufficient to reach the full poling state.

十分に〜>Channel size also must be large enough to allow ingress of the melt without reaction products "choking" the flow paths, yet small enough to ensure that the desired reactions proceed to completion within a reasonable time period.

    The earliest measurements show a clear maximum in response for PZT compositions near the morphotropic boundary, and more recent studies have amply confirmed its importance for poling. 

十年間>The room-temperature aging rate for a conventionally prepared 50-50 ceramic would be approximately a 4.0% per decade decrease in the dielectric constant and an 0.25% per decade increase in the resonant frequency.

重要な、重大な significant

     Of more significance, however, is the absence of a marked decrease〜(さらに重要な事は、〜)

    One of the most critical unresolved issues in the durability of SiC/SiC composites pertains to internal oxidation and embrittlement in steam-laden environments.

深い、重大な、非常に>The introduction of manganese into PMNT, however, has profound effects on its dielectric properties.

重要性>The importance of a die lubricant was also apparent, as shown by a 100% increase in green strength.

〜の視点から、見地から、観点からは、>The physiological significance was discussed from the standpoint of the control of asparatate biosynthesis.

    It is interesting from the viewpoint of comparative biochemistry.

〜しているところの〜>On the other hand, Nitta, who investigated compositions in the range 0.04<x<0.12, reported a continuous decrease in Nr with increasing Li concentration, in agreement with the present results.(○○組成を研究したNittaは〜

少量の〜>A very small amount of oxygen and hydrogen gasses is admitted into an evacuated tube 100 ft long.

    The small amount of pyrochlore formed in PMN ceramics sintered at 1200 degC could be attributed to many factors, including inhomogeneity of the mixture, whilst at 1300 degC pyrochlore formation is most likely to be due solely to PbO evaporation.

少数の>A few preliminary experiments indicated that relatively high temperatures and pressures would be required to obtain sufficient densification in a reasonable time.

少々の>With the 13mm pellets little polishing was necessary, however, the smaller pellets which were initially investigated required more attention due to non-uniform shrinkage during the sintering process.

従来の、通常の>Conventional bridge circuits are used for both detectors.

将来>Details on these will be reported in the near future. (近い将来)

    In vivo studies and long-term mechanical performance of the prototypes will be evaluated and reported in future.

 

将来性のある>Silicon carbide is one of the most promising transister materials for extremly high-temperature application. (将来が約束されている)

将来の仕事>More work remains to be carried out on this system.

試料、サンプル>Samples were ball milled in isopropyl alcohol with

合成されたガラス       Synthesized glass

合成された粉末→いいかえ→サンプル(samples, specimens)

            Bar-shaped specimens(バー状の試料)

            sample compositions(サンプルの組成)

            The air-sintered sample (大気焼成したサンプル)

            Mn-doped sample(マンガンドープしたサンプル)

            The CO2-sintered x=0.0223 sample

            Sample that had incerased dielectric constants also had increased temperature coefficients.  (〜した試料は、〜した)

              The sample compositions were measured by X-ray fluorescencee spectroscopy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical values. 

      Disk-shaped samples for dielectric measurement of thickness 1.5 mm were sawn out of the sintered pellets.

      The air-sintered sample exhibits smaller permittivity levels

       〜 in Mn-doped samples.

       where the relaxor-properties of the CO2-sintered x=0.0223 sample are to

                  Samples that had increased dielectric constants also had increased temperature coefficients.(〜した試料は、〜した)

    Specimens used in evaluating the characteristics of the 50-50 composition were prepared at 1100℃and 5600 psi for 20 minutes.

 

蒸留水>The precursors were prepared by ball milling the appropriate amount of reagent grade oxides Fe2O3 or NiO with optical grade Nb2O5 in distilled water for 12 hours using zirconia milling media.

蒸留した>After stirring at 353 K for 5h, the solvent was evaporated at 353 K using a rotary evaporator.

蒸着した>Gold electrodes were evaporated on to both faces of the sample and subsequently covered with silver dag.

自動システムで>Dielectric measurements were carried out on an automated system whereby a Delta design model 2300 temperature control box, and Hewlett Packard Model 4274A LCR meter were controlled by a Hewlett Packard 9825A desktop computer system.

シフトする>It is evident from Fig.1 that PNN exhibits a frequency dispersion of the dielectric maximum, i.e., the maximum dielectric constant increases and shifts to lower temperatures as the frequency is decreased.

周波数>It is evident from Fig.1 that PNN exhibits a frequency dispersion of the dielectric maximum, i.e., the maximum dielectric constant increases and shifts to lower temperatures as the frequency is decreased.

焼結>Compositions having greater than 60% PFN were found to sinter at temperatures lower than 1000 degC.

焼結したままの>The levels of porosity shown by samples of barium titanate in the as-sintered condition are presented in Fig.2 for the preliminary experiments.

焼成温度>The MnO additions were also found to aid in the sintering process, further reducing the firing temperature.

                    The dielectric constant k and density were also found to increase with firing temperature.

    The temperature of the furnace was then raised to 1320℃ to allow the formation of the liquid phase and densification of the pellets.

焼結温度>The parent PMNT material was a 95:5 PMN-PT powder with a low sintering temperature, as supplied by TAM ceramics, Niagara Falls, USA and designated Y5V183U.

焼成条件>Effects of the firing conditions on the density, Tc, dielectric constant and loss for samples having the composition 0.6PFN-0.4PNN with MnO additions are presented in Table I.

修正する>The coefficients could also be modified simply by varying the Tc with additions of PbTiO3 (PT).

時点、 この時点では〜>No explanation can be given at this time.

〜のそれと同様に〜>These compositions were also found to densify at low temperatures and had grain size effects similar to that of 0.6PFN-0.4PNN.

時間関係の表記>These precursors were mixed in a planetary ball mill for 20 minutes in acetone media.

       All mixed samples were calcined at 1150 degC for 30 min by applying heat at a rate of 4 deg/min.

       TEOS was then added and prehydrolished for 2 hours.

       Then the resulting slurry was transferred into a Teflon-lined stainless steel autoclave and maintained at 180 degC for 16-36 h.

新規の>Novel lead-free yellow pigments for Arita ware

 

市販の〜>These primary particles aggregate to form secondary particles, which have an average size of about 0.68 mm; this is nearly one third of the size of the secondary particles in the commercial praseodymium yellow pigment.

    In general, the strengths of samples prepared from commercially available barium titanate were only 50% of those made of material prepared in the laboratory.

 

浸食>The Ce and Bi concentrations in the 4% acetic acid solution were analyzed after the leaching test.

that以下を証明している>These results demonstrate that overglazed painting using the Ce pigment has excellent chemical resistance to vinegars.

証明する>Models of this type have proved useful on predicting inelastic strain fields in open-hole tensile coupons.

 

しなかった>In addition, visual observation did not detect any discoloration or loss of gloss of the paintwork after the leaching test.

重量%>Pigment concentrations of 3 and 20 wt% are used for painting and drawing, respectively.

〜cm四方を〜>A 4-cm-square was painted or drawn inside the dish using the overglazed enamel and the dish was heated at 1073 K for 30 min.

急速な、迅速な〜>In air, a rapid transition from relaxor to normal ferroelectric properties takes place upon addition of manganese.

主として>This difference in behaviour is attributed to verying oxidation states of the manganese ions, it being proposed that that air-sintered samples contain predominantly Mn3+-ions.

焼結しないサンプル>Anti-sintered sampleshave lower densities than their counterparts sintered in CO2, with the exception of the 10mol% doped sample.

記す>Further insight into the differences between CO2- and air-sintered samples is provided by Fig.6, in which the parameter dT is used as a simple indicator of the degree of frequency-dispersion, i.e. relaxor behaviour.

収束>At the highest doping-level of 10 mol%, a convergence is observed of the curves for air- and CO2-sintered ceramics at a small negative value.

手順、操作>The sintering procedure leads to low lead losses and consequently avoids the formation of pyrochlore.

    Details of the testing procedure have been described previously.

実際問題として>In practice, terminal porosity is > 10%.

上限>However, their upper use temperature is limited by the low melting point (1400) and low creep resistance of silicon.

消費する>Although in principle the mixture of matrix particles can be designed to consume all silicon in the formation of SiC, some free silicon invariaby remains.

焦点を当てる>Strategies for elevating composite use temperature focus on improved matrices.

    The mechanical performance of the cellulose nanocomposites in room conditions and simulated body conditions and the biocompatibility studies are focused on in this paper.

 

占めている>Ferroelectric ceramics are widely used as capacitors, transducers, and thermistors, accounting for about one-half the sales of electroceramic components.

証明した>Neutron experiments authenticated the soft-mode concept and led to the discovery of a number of peculiar improper ferroelectrics such as gadolinium molybdate.

しっかりと>Over this period, the number of known ferroelectrics grew from Rochelle Salt, KDP, and three or four ferroelectric perovskites in 1950 to twenty-five firmly established families of ferroelectrics, more than twenty definite perovskite compounds, and innumerable solid solutions in the early 1960s.

支配的な>In KDP, however, Raman and NMR spectra later revealed the fascinating interconnection between the proton ordering and the soft mode in the motion of the potassium and phosphate ions which is the dominant carrier of spontaneous polarization.

重責を果たした>This group was responsible for one of the first realistic microscopic theories for the origin of spontaneous polarization.

システマティックな>In 1824 Brewster had observed the phenomenon of pyroelectricity in various crystals, among which was Rochelle Salt, but perhaps the first systematic studies were those of the brothers Pierre and Paul-Jacques Curie in 1880.

システム>The rate equation of Murray, Livey, and Williams for hot-pressing ceramics was found to apply in this system.

信頼性の高い>It is thus a difficult material to electrode for reliable electrical measurement.

識別する>It appears that one of the first studies to identify the anomalous dielectric response in Rochelle Salt was by Pockels.

種族、種類>Studies by Smolenskii and Agronovskaya in the 1950s provided a large family of lead-containing perovskite compounds of complex composition.

修飾>The basis for many of the modifier ion schemes was provided by Jaffe.

ご指摘の〜>I am aware of the media report that you mentioned.

除去>Elimination of the binder prior to sintering resulted in an increase in porosity of 3% in the calcined material accompanied by a slight decrease in strength.

that以下が指摘されるべきである>It should be pointed out thatthe pyroplastic properties of these niobates were such that elevated temperatures approaching those required for air sintering were still necessary with externally applied pressure to densify the material in a relatively short period of time.

    Although it is true that most of the properties are improved by hot pressing, it should be pointed out that the ac loss is still relatively high for these compositions.

 

〜したままの>The as-fired porosities of all samples are shown in Fig. 1a-c.

集中した>Much work has concentrated on improving their electrical characteristics.

収縮>Shrinkage in the axial and radial directions is presented in Table V that the for samples of each mix pressed at 70MPa from which it can be seen that samples which attain the highest fired densities have similar shrinkage in both directions.

    During the firing process, contraction of the pellets took place with the samples typically attaining 85% of their theoretical density.

準備>Details of the testing arrangement have been described previously.

時間消費>The time spent above a certain temperature during sintering also appears to be important in the densification, suggested by the lower porosities of samples produced under commercial conditions.

初期の>Additionally, studies by Kahn have indicated that grain size is not dependent on initial particle size and that grain growth could be limited by increasing dopant concentration.

1つのスクリーンセルに複数個のスクリーン核を形成する初期過程では規則性を持たない成長手法を実行し、初期過程後には規則性を持つ成長手法を実行する

    A growth method without regularity is executed in an initial process for forming a plurality of screen cores in one screen cell, and a growth method with regularity is executed in processes following the initialprocess.

    Furthermore, the initial toe region visible in the stress-strain curves of natural ligament and tendons are not found in the nanocomposite materials.

湿った>Binders, die lubricants and a humid atmosphere can all be employed to improve the strengths of compacts by softening the agglomerates, which improves their handleability.

潤滑油>The samples prepared on the production facility showed much higher strengths, which may be due to the presence of die lubricant.

施設>Material prepared on the production facility showed less porosity than that produced by the standard laboratory technique.

状況>In reality this situation is only approached by wet pressing or the addition of lubricants or binders, but the radial force is only at best 〜30%of the axial force.

日本は危険な状況にある。Japan is a dangerous situation.

駆動輪がロックしやすい状況でも〜 even under the condition that the driving wheel is easily locked up.

この部位は、屈曲しやすい状況となっている The parts are brought into an easily-bendable situation.

酸化物膜に不純物が残留しやすいという問題 the problem that impuritirs are easy to remain in an oxide thin film

両統迭立の状況が発生している Ryoto tetsuritsu occurred

この状況が発生した場合は、IDEを終了して再起動し、そのプロジェクトを開きます。If this situation occurs, exit and restart the IDE, and then open the project.

堆積物中のガスハイドレートの生成・分解状況を検知する方法及びガスハイドレートの生成・分解状況検知装置を提供する。To provide a detection method of generation and decomposition state of gas hydrate in a sediment, and an apparatus for the same.

試算した>The density was estimated and the diametral compressive strength measured using the same techniques.

上面、下面>The upper and lower faces of the discs were ground flat, polished and coated with an indium-gallium eutectic to provide the electrical contact.

収容する>Loading anvils had a 7.5mm radius of curvature to accommodate the as-pressed pellets which were larger prior to sintering

出発原料>For mixes 1,3 and 4 barium titanate was obtained from TAM chemicals as a high-purity grade(total impurities≦0.05%by mass),produced by the ignition of barium titanyl oxylate.

仕組み>With a specific experimental setup and procedure, it was then possible to establish the temperature differential between the control thermocouple and the specimen temperature over the range of temperatures considered to within ±2.0℃

〜しにくい>説明しにくい  difficult to describ 

自然環境>自然環境を汚染から守るprotect the environment from pollution

指摘>ご指摘の通り As you pointrd out,

あなたの指摘はごもっともであると考えている。I think what you pointed out is right.

式>The gel content was calculated using the following equation:

シークエンス> Sequences of the used primers are described in Table 1.

奨励>Although the short-term results of the LARS ligament are encouraging, the absence of published long-term outcomes(結果、成果) for LARS ligaments should be acknowledged.

親密な>The surface images show a highly compact structure and it is not easy to identify individual fibrils of collagen or cellulose, which indicates an intimate(親密な) mixing of the phases.

純粋な>The increase in mechanical properties was remarkable in these composites and the crosslinked as well as non-crosslinked nanocomposites showed better mechanical properties than pure collagen or cellulose nanofibres.

周期的>The genipin crosslinked composites with 75wt% cellulose nanofibres showed most promising behavior (55MPa at constant strain of 0.5%) before sterilization under cyclic loading which decreased to 16MPa after sterilization.

条件> under the condition.(この条件下で)

収率> パルプの収率を向上させるクラフト蒸解方法 KRAFT DIGESTING METHOD FOR IMPROVING YIELD OF PULP

to synthesize four-layer CNT having high linearity at a high yield.(高収率で)


す><あかさたなページに戻る>

〜するために、〜>To 動詞〜、〜  To determine the inportance, 〜

      To investigate the dependence of strength on porosity these two parameter have been plotted〜

               (途中のカンマなしパターン)

      To improve poling of piezoelectric materials, the corona discharge technique has been recently developed.

〜するために、〜である。>In order to 〜, 文〜

       In order to determine the Tc of BNT ceramics, I made the the ceramics.

       All 17 compositions were synthesized and measured in order to select the best material.

                    Firstly, in order to improve the dielectric loss and resistivity, small amounts of MnO were added, as reported elsewhere.

                  In order to highlight the importance of sintering atmosphere, two distinct sets of conditions are applied, (i) in air; and (ii) in carbon dioxide, a typical less oxidising atmosphere.

     A calibration of the furnace temperature-controller was carried out, in order to allow for the effects of the gas-flow.

    The use of setter pellets was in order to avoid a chemical reaction with the alumina crucibles, along with pellet distortions arising from one-sided contacts with the crucibles.

 

〜するための〜は、〜>The cost to make a transducer from ACI's PZT fiber is a fraction of the cost 〜

           ACIのPZTファイバーからトランスジューサーを作製するためのコストは、

 

〜すると〜なった。>As porosity increased to 22% the strength dropped to only 25% of the strength value.(途中のカンマなしパターン)

    As the compressive stress is increased from 0 to -25MPa, the slope of the stress-strain curve changes, indicating non-180 °domain wall motion.

           As the grain size increases, the number of boundaries increases with the grain decreases, and the large dielectric constant of the grains would become less affected by a low dielectric constant grain boundary.

    As the sintering temperature is increased to 1275 degC, both the relative permittivity and dissipation factor increase for a given frequency, as shown for 1kHz in Fig.7.

 

            「〜によって」も検討すること

    However, when the PbO was increased to x=0.1, the (331) ordering reflection

            Upon SEM microstructual analysis, it was found that the average gain size and uniformity increased with sintering temperature and time.

                               uponはon とほぼ同意味であるが文章語。

〜すると、すぐに〜>As soon as the field was applied, the load rapidly dropped〜

〜すべきである。>It should be noted that + 文〜 (that以下に注目すべきである)

     It should be pointed out that +文  (that以下に注目すべきである)

     The stability of fluorite relative to perovskite should increase with PbO excess or deficiency, as reflected in Fig.8, particularly for a > 1 and b < 0.

〜する時、〜>However, praseodymium yellow is slightly bluish conpared with koiki and it has a different tone from these traditional pigments even whencolor matching is performed using other paints.

図解したように、〜>As illustrated in Table III, the sample〜

    However, the diametral compressive strength of samples decreased by 36-55% as the die pressure increased from 70-210MPa, as illustrated in Fig. 3.

この図において、〜>In this figure, 〜

図の表現のひとつ>Here, maximum densisties have been calculated from the observed lattice parameters (Fig.1), assuming a d-value equal to x.

少なくとも、〜>In piezoelectric actuator and oter applications a working temperature of at least 150℃ is required for operations〜

    The data presented is based on at least eight samples.

すなわち、(つまり)〜である。>That is, 〜 / namely, 〜 (通常、文頭では用いない)

すなわち、言い換えれば>In other words,

i.e.> (すなわち、又は、いいかえれば、という意味。 読み方は、that is

     Figure 7 shows how the volatiles in MgO, i.e., the stoichiometry of MgO, can 〜.

     〜and other compositions (i.e., Z5T5, F5T5, B5T5, and S5T5) were used 〜

            It is evident from Fig.1 that PNN exhibits a frequency dispersion of the dielectric maximum, i.e., the maximum dielectric constant increases and shifts to lower temperatures as the frequency is decreased.

〜、すなわち〜>The highest densities (>99.5% of theoretical) were recorded for specimens sintered at 1250 deg.C. and 1200 bars.

     The highest value of kp, 39.5%, was measured for a specimen of the 12/88 composition where the corresponding mechanical quality factor, Qm, was 755.

すべての組成で>All the compositions showed perovskite structure, comfirmed by XRD.

    All sample exhibited strong optical absorption at wavelength below 500 nm.

    All the samples reported in Table I had resistivities greater than 1x10 10 ohm-cm.

    All of the samples showed greatly improved PTCR effects following annealing.

 

すべてのケースで、〜>In all cases, 〜

数字(これらの数字)>These numbers are very promising when compared to PZT type materials.

〜と推定される(考えられる)>It may be suspected that +文    It is suspected that +文

that以下であると推定(仮定)した>It is presumed that the domain wall can be moved nearly reversibly by the alternating field.

              The crystal system of the various compositions was presumed to be cubic or psudocubic as reported elsewhere.

 

推定する、予想する、推測する>Tanaka et al. deduced that there must be a uniform stress

that以下を推測出来る>We can conjecture that 〜

推察される> 建具要素が存在すると推察される領域を the region guessed that a furniture element exists 

ずつ、づつ、刻みで、間隔で>Films were grown at temperatures from 500 to 700 , in steps of 50, as well as at 575 and 625.

動く、進展する、進む>The growth process is driven by the difference in surface free energy between the template and the matrix grains during thermal processing.   

整理するために、〜>Hence, for simplicity, the discussion is limited to the competition

ずいぶん〜>These values for the hysteretic loss are quite high and 〜

すなわち、つまり>namely (文頭ではもちいない)

スラリー>The resultant slurry was dried and placed in alumina crucibles whereby reaction was carried out at 1000 degC for 4 hours.

    The slurry was subsequently dried and passed through a sieve of mesh 20mm. Pellets were pressed at 25MPa by means of a 19mm pseudo-double-ended uniaxial die.

素晴らしい、洗練された>These results demonstrate that overglazed painting using the Ce pigment has excellent chemical resistance to vinegars.

素晴らしい>One should also mention the superb work at the Physical-Technical Institute in Leningrad under the direction of Shulvas-Sorokina, and later I.Kurchatov and coworkers.

ずっと大きい>The sun is much larger than the moon.

レベル、水準>Mn-doping levels beyond 10 mol% are still to be investigated.

寸法>The dimensions of the green pellets were also measured and the surfaces of the setter pellets repolished before reinserting into the alumina crucible, together with PMN atmosphere powder.

スケール>Multilayer structures on a submillimeter scale in corporate resistors, capacitors, dielectrics, metal interconnects, and piezoelectric transducers.

きれいに、すっきりと>After 1940, in the postperovskite era, it appears that the developments fall rather neatly into four decade-long periods.

遂行された>An investigation of the hot pressing of potassium-sodium niobate ceramics with emphasis on the( K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 composition has been conducted.

水冷>It is heated in the radio-frequency field of a water-cooled copper coil 8 in diameter.

スパッタ>The samples were sputter coated with gold to avoid charging.

吸い取る> The samples were removed at appropriate time intervals, gently blotted(吸い取る) with tissue paper to remove excess liquid on the surface and weighed again until equilibrium swelling(膨張) was reached as indicated by constant weight.

水洗>第1の水洗処理11では、絶縁膜及びこの上のメタル配線を純水により水洗いする。In the first water cleaning process 11, an insulating film and a metal wiring formed thereon are washed usingthe pure water.


せ><あかさたなページに戻る>

〜のせいで(のために(原因、理由))〜>Due to the fine size of the particles, it was possible〜

    The rate will be low due to the small sectional area of liquid.

〜のせいである、〜に起因する>This can be attributed to differences in the

    The authors attributed the observed nonlinearity to the motion of non-180 deg domain walls.

     著者らは観察された非線形性は非180ドメイン壁の移動に起因すると考えた。

〜のせいで、〜のおかげで、〜のために、〜の事情で>Owing to the prohibition on the use of Pb-based materials, the demand for Pb-free ceramics has grown〜

責任がある、〜のせい>The postulated Mn(iii)O6-dipoles are thought to be responsible for the considerable differences in the dielectric properties of air- and CO2-sintered samples shown in Fig 3-6.

全体として、全体的に、〜>Overall, the electrocmechanical〜

 全体の〜>Thus the overall decrease in a0 is only 0.025%, whereas the mean B-ion radius, assuming all manganese ions to be in the +3 state, is predicted to be reduced from 66 pm to 66 pm.

〜を説明する>Two possible mechanisms can account for this densification behavior, i.e. grain-boundary sliding and Nabarro-Herring stress-enhanced diffusion.

説明出来る>This can be explained in term of the pressing process.

     The grain size dependency of the dielectric behavior in PMN can possibly be explained based on the mechanism of relaxor behavior.

     It can be explained using the domain engineering concept proposed in this paper.

     it can be expected by the fact that 2MV/mm electric field is a saturation field for this material.

    This can be explained in terms of the pressing process.

    This is probably explained by the flexible crosslinks formed by genipin.

 

説明できない >No explanation can be given at this time.

解釈される、説明される>The behavior of the PMN and PMT-substituted system can be interpreted using similar arguments.

     The results are explained physically in terms of volume 〜

選択した>In the present study, five compositions were selected in the xPMN-(1-x)PT system, in which x=0.0, 0.9, 0.8, and 0.6.

     Some of the selected samples were tested using the same procedure after sterillization.

〜が成功した。(達成した、得られた)>Grain sizes as low as 0.3mm were achieved.

成功裏に>This value has previously been used successfully in obtaining accurate and repeatable results.

    Cellulose has also been successfully used as scaffolds(足場) for tissue-engineered meniscus(メニスカス、凹凸レンズ) and blood vessels(容器).

    The ligament advanced reinforcement system (LARS) artificial ligament consists of polyethylene terephthalate fibers is the most commonly used and successful synthetic ligament today.

 

先述したように、〜 >As mentioned above, the use of strongly acidic cation 〜  As mentioned previously,

前述の〜>When the size distribution is wide and access to some spaces is restricted, uniform and complete infiltration of matrix material by any of the aforementioned routes becomes problematic.

 

〜は設計された、デザインされた>Using this as the guideline a composition given as (Li0.03Na0.55K0.42) NbO3 was designed.

整列>The large blocky grains are 30 mm thick and aligned along the tape casting direction.

     In healthy ligaments, the fibroblast and the collagen fibers are aligned (整列)along the direction of loading.

 

〜に制限した、〜に限られる>Hence, for simplicity, the discussion is limited to the competition

    In this method, both sample sides should be electroded and poling is limited to samples of small area.

     Lubitz has shown that limited grain growth can be accomplished by increasing the heating rate close to the maximum temperature.

制限>However, because of physical constraints imposed by the (already dense) fibers, matrix densification cannot be achieved by sintering alone.

 

〜に相当する、〜に等しい>This is equal to 38.5MPa.

〜をセットした>Flow-rate was set with mass-flow controllers.

精密化する、精製する>Diffraction datasets were refined by the Rietveld method

精密な>Density was determined by weight and a volume calculated from precise dimensional measurements where porosity was high and by weight loss in CCI where porosity.

製造した、作った>Two batches of pellets were produced, one sintered in air and the other in CO2.

    An air atmosphere produces favourable sintering conditions for the production of barium titanate PTCR devices.

 

正確に、精密に accurately

正確な、的確な>The larger faces of all of the pellets were ground flat, however, to enable accurate density measurements to be made using the mass/volume method which was used to assess the porosity of the pellets.

静的に statically / ダイナミックに dynamically / ダイナミックな dynamic

製品>Ceramic businesses in Saga prefecture in Japan are under pressure due to competition from imported products from other countries as well as similar products produced in other prefectures in Japan.

前者は、〜、後者は〜>Perovskite-structured ferroelectrics show both intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to the piezoelectric response. The former is due to field-induced changes in the polarization, while the latter is associated with domain wall and/or phase boundary motion.

制御された>Dielectric measurements were carried out on an automated system whereby a Delta design model 2300 temperature control box, and Hewlett Packard Model 4274A LCR meter were controlled by a Hewlett Packard 9825A desktop computer system.

制御温度>Control temperatureswere measured with a Leeds and Northrup Micromax recorder and a shielded Pt-P10Rh thermocouple positioned near the top surface of the zirconia liners.

SEM観察 >From the SEM observation, although a smooth surface can be seen for the Ti metal reagent perticles, it is found that submicron-sized nanoparticles cover the surface of the Ti metal particles after the hydrothermal treatment.

    Electron microscopy measurements were performed using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM; JEOL, JSM-6700FSS).

微構造の発達>Microstructural development during sintering was investigated by scannning electron microscopy (SEM).

前者、後者>Since the a* value of the present CeO2 pigment is much larger than that of the commercially available praseodymium yellow (Table 2), the panel coated with former is slightly reddish compared with that coated with the latter.

セットした>Flow-rate was set with mass-flow controllers.

責任がある、〜のせい>The postulated Mn(iii)O6-dipoles are thought to be responsible for the considerable differences in the dielectric properties of air- and CO2-sintered samples shown in Fig 3-6.

専門性>This approach is computationally most intensive and requires a high degree of computational expertise to generate and extract meaningful results.

〜の前後>To manufacture a film having a small change in-plane retardation Rth between before and after moisture-heat durability test.

湿温耐久試験の前後における面内レターデーションRthの変動が小さいフイルムを製造する。

    It was noted that pellets pressed under higher pressures showed lower porosities both before and after sintering.

〜成分>Also, as the one of the active components, a peptide derived from the cheese is found out. また、有効成分の一つとしてチーズ由来のペプチドを見出すに至った。

 

世界中で〜>That book is read around the world.  その本は世界中で読まれている

先駆的な〜>The pioneering work at National Lead Company by Wainer, Solomon, and their coworkers firmly established the ceramic perovskite dielectrics in the 1940s.

切迫した>One of the earliest U.S. involvements with Rochelle Salt appears to have occurred as a response to the urgent demands of submarine warfare in World War I.

切削した>Machined disks, suitable for density determinations and electrical measurements were prepared from the hot-pressed specimens.

切断>Samples from the commercial facility were cut to size prior to testing.

SEM>The specimens were examined after testing on a scanning electron microscope (Cam-bridge S600) to establish the point of crack initiation and to assess whether either transgranular or intergranular failure had occurred.

 

接着した>The AFM imaging of the nanocomposites were carried out directly on the film surfaces, glued on the sample holder.

 

生理食塩水>The sorption behaviour of collagen, crosslinked collagen, and collagen-based nanocomposites were studied in PBS solution.

生物学的>No cytotoxic effect was found biologically or statistically significant using Balb/c 3T3.

生分解性の> Lu et al. reported poly-a-hydroxyl ester based braided (編んだ)biodegradable(生分解性の) scaffolds and showed that poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA)-based braided scaffold coated with fibronectin (Fn) was most suitable for ACL tissue engineering.

生理学上の>Elastin, another fibrous protein present in ligaments (~1% of the dry weight), allows(許す) the tissue to return to its pre-stretched length following physiological(生理学上の) loading and 70% of ligaments is water.

生体内の>In vivo good HEC differentiation and growth will allow in situ angiogenesis, which provides essential nutrients and O2 supply to HLC phenotype expression, i.e., ESM synthesis.

 


そ><あかさたなページに戻る>

〜は測定された>The dielectric polarization versus electric field was measured with S-T circuit.

    The properties were measured using the sensor.

    The dielectric constant (k) and loss (tand) were measured pseudo-continuously at 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 kHz upon cooling from 150 ℃at a rate of 3 ℃/min.

           The sample compositions were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (Rigaku, ZSX-100e) and found to be in good agreement with theoretical values.

    The dielectric properties of the final products were measured for signal voltages at various frequencies between 100 Hz and 100 kHz in the temperature range from -60 to 60 degC, using an HP4284A precision LCR meter in conjunction with a Delta Design 9023 temperature chamber.

 

〜の測定は、〜>Measurements of complex impedance were carried out for the frequency range 100Hz-1MHz at temperatures between -55 and 150 degC.

    Measurement of the resistivity of the PTCR devices took place within an insulated thermal cabinet, controlled by microcomputer, which had capacity for nine samples.

 

それでも、それでもやはり、〜にもかかわらず(主に雑誌用?)Still, 〜  Still, Kusumoto shouldn't 〜

それにもかかわらず、〜である。(主に論文用)>Nevertheless, 〜

〜の存在は、〜>The presence of domain structure would increase hysteresis.

〜は存在する>The M.P.B. exists in the PMN-PT solid-solution system at about 0.32 mol% of PT content.

     Thus, the driving force for the grain growth still exists.

              It can be clearly seen that if the Tc for samples having compositions near PNN were measured at very low frequencies, e.g., 0.1Hz, then a linear relationship would probably exist.

 

〜の存在下で>This confirmed that the Genipin crosslinks collagen effectively even in the presence of other nano-sized materials.

それに加えて、〜>In addition, 〜 又はAdditionally,〜  / Also, 〜

それゆえに〜>Therefore, 〜

それ以来>SiC/SiC turbine blades may be introduced soon thereafter.

それによって>In the case of PMNT, the function of the Ti4+ ions and associated TiO6 dipoles is to increase the size of these polarisation clusters, thereby reducing dT from 23.7 to 7.8 degC between PMN and 80PMN-20PT.

    This enables elevated operating temperatures-and, hence, improvements in thermal efficiency-and reductions in cooling air, thereby increasing bypass air and propulsive efficiency as well as reducing NOx emissions.

それに関して>In the case of PMNT, the function of the Ti4+ ions and associated TiO6 dipoles is to increase the size of these polarisation clusters, thereby reducing dT from 23.7 to 7.8 degC between PMN and 80PMN-20PT.

それに対して、>In contrast, -

〜に相当する〜、〜に該当する〜、〜にあたる〜>the near MPB composition corresponding to 0.8BNT-0.18BKT was processed and evaluated.

    CeO has the highest b* value, which corresponds to the yellow component in the positive direction.

    This corresponds to a reduction of 1.32%.

相当に、かなり、大幅に>This is considerably lower than Ts.

相当>The corresponding er,max-values are considerably lower in air-sintered samples, showing an overall decrease with increasing manganese concentration.

増強>Furthermore, in all materials this strengthening(増強) gradually decrease in the subsequent cycles and the materials showed stable behaviour under cyclic loading and unloading after the first cycle.

 

増加する>The dielectric loss magnitude increases from 7.8% to 12.4%.

増加>As the sintering temperature is increased to 1275, both the relative permittivity and dissipation factor increase for a given frequency, as shown for 1kHz in Fig.7.

         Increasing the PbO content led to the emergence of perovskite at higher ZrO2 contents under the same processing conditions, as noted in Fig.1(b).

    There was a 20% increase in strength when a binder was used.

〜の増加にしたがって、〜の上昇にしたがって>With increasing temperature, With increasing levels of terbium, Increasing the milling time from 12 to 24h resulted in little change in either porosity or diametral compressive strength.

    Addition of the binder prior to the milling stage (sample group 4a) led to a 〜50% increase in strength.

増加すると〜、だんだん、徐々に、〜なる>As the stress increases, the polarization in the sample gradually becomes orthogonal to the applied load.

〜は増加した、その後、減少した>Both polarization and strain initially increase with increasing prestress because more non-180 deg domains are available. At higher prestress, the polarization and strain output decreases because the applied electric field is insufficient to overcome the applied prestress.

   The resistivity was found to decrease with increasing firing temperature.

    It was found that the porosity of the green samples decreased with increasing pressure, down to 38% at pressures of 1000 MPa.

 

「〜で最大だった」も検討すること>The dielectric constant peaked at a Zr/Ti ratio of 58/42, whereas planar coupling and birefringence were maximum at 62/38.

それぞれ>, respectively  (文の最後についている場合が多い)   〜for BNKT, BNBT and KNN respectively. (カンマなしパターン) / それぞれの respective 

それぞれの〜>Each Pb/Ti solution was assayed for its oxide content 〜

    Four beams were used for each measurement of tensile strength.

〜はそれと同じ〜>The crystal shows same phase transformation characteristics as that found for BaTiO3.

〜のそれと〜>This paper compares the temperature dependence of dielectric and piezoelectric properties for the MPB compositions in BNT-BKT and BNT-BT system along with that of KNN system.

               In addition, the electromechanical properties of KNN are inferior to those of PZT and 〜

〜であり、それというのは〜(which文、which文を参照せよ)>The lattice constant decreases monotonically with increasing Zr4+ content for samples with x≦0.37, which indicates the formation of solid solutions.

    A less-oxidizing atmosphere subdued the PTCR effect substantially which may be attributed to the inability of holmium to diffuse into the barium titanate lattice under these conditions.

 

   The CeO pigment was added to four commercially available lead-free frits, two of which are used for overlayer painting and two of which are used for line drawing.

(それの二つ)

 

その代わりに、〜>Instead, 〜 通常文頭、文尾で用いる 例) Instead, he told nothing. その代わりに、彼は何も話さなかった。

その結果として、>As a result, 〜  その他の活用例) As a function of frequency, 〜

〜、その結果として〜>The ferroelectric to paraelectric transition is second order and as a result is broad in respect to temperature.(in respect to 〜で〜に関して)

その一方、〜>Meanwhile, 〜

その後、〜>Subsequently, Tanaka et al. reported MPB in BNT-BKT 〜

その後、引き続いて、>The solid obtained was dried at 403 K for 1 h and successively calcined 1273 K for 1 h.

それに続く〜>Subsequent problems associated with central peaks in the Raman and neutron scattering data and the escalating interest in critical phenomena and scaling indices, tempts one flippantly to term the era of the 70s that of "hardening of the modes."

その後〜>The fracture toughness, Kic, decreased with increasing temperature up to the Curie temperature ( 350) and remained constant thereafter.

そのような〜、そんな〜>Such dispersion is consistent with domain wall motion, but a pure 〜

   Such simulations also highlight the importance of matrix stiffness and strength in suppressing these elevations.

    Such properties are most desirable for certain solid ultrasonic delay-line applications which require the use of thin-section transducers.

    Such changes are comparable to those observed for certain titanate compositions previously stabilized by heat treatment.

〜は備えている>This provides a considerable advantage over the competing BNT-BKT and BNT-BT systems.

    The "fugitive" nature of the PbO provides a measure of autocompensation in the semiconductor properties, and high-resistivity sample can be made with a much wider range of aliovalent dopant ions than would ever be possible in the BaTiO3 family.

    This system provided a steady temperature increase to the devices at a rate of 3℃and resistance was measured automatically after the temperature had been constant for 3 min.

    An Instron 1000 Testing Machine provided the loading through a 5kN load cell at a speed of 2mm.

 

〜に沿った〜>The variation of the dielectric and piezoelectric property along this tie line is 〜

(魅力を)損なう、減少させる>The cost of hot pressing and the use of excess PbO diminish the commercial potential of BaTiO3-templated PMN-PT.

〜、それは〜>These results are in contrast to the stress-dependent electromechanical properties of (001)-oriented crystals, which became increasingly nonlinear and hysteretic with increasing t.

その上、さらに>Additionally,〜 / Moreover,〜/ Further, / 追加の additional  

相対的な relative

Aか、それともBか>The Pt interlayer was 100-300 A thick, and was deposited either by magnetron sputter deposition at room temperature, or by ion-beam sputter deposition at 400

相図>Fig.1 Phase diagram of the PMN-PT solid-solution system.  

存在しなかった>Prior to electroding, the sintered disks were analyzed by X-ray diffraction to insure that little or no pyrochlore phase was present.

速度>The dielectric constant (k) and loss (tand) were measured pseudo-continuously at 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 kHz upon cooling from 150 ℃ at a rate of 3 ℃/min.

組成> 

合成されたガラス       Synthesized glass

合成された粉末→いいかえ→サンプル(samples, specimens)

            Bar-shaped specimens(バー状の試料)

            sample compositions(サンプルの組成)

            The air-sintered sample (大気焼成したサンプル)

            Mn-doped sample(マンガンドープしたサンプル)

            The CO2-sintered x=0.0223 sample

            Sample that had incerased dielectric constants also had increased temperature coefficients.  (〜した試料は、〜した)

   Such compositions are referred to as "relaxor" ferroelectrics.

         These compositions were also found to densify at low temperatures and had grain size effects similar to that of 0.6PFN-0.4PNN.

              The sample compositions were measured by X-ray fluorescencee spectroscopy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical values.

    Compositions with values of x equal to 0, 0.0045, 0.0223, 0.0438, 0.065 and 0.10 were prepared, corresponding to doping levels of up to 10mol% manganese.

    Greater fidelity can be obtained through higher-order representation of the constituents.

    The manganese-doped compositions to be investigated here may be represented by the formula 0.95PMN-5PTMn with 0<x< 0.1.

〜辺りの〜>  was observed around this temperature.

      〜辺りの組成に in the compositions near

〜辺りの組成>These results imply that the solid solutions of the single monoclinic BiVO4 phase are successfully formed and that the solubility limit is around x=0.10 in Bi1-xLaxVO4.

組成表示>The ratio of Co element increases with x increasing from 0.5 to 3.0.(BFO-BT-Co-x ceramics,組成表示)

             The difference in this case is the presence of amorphous halo between 10 deg and 35 deg.

              Fig.5 shows a comparison of the Fe octahedral environments for x=0 and x=0.4.

相平衡>Phase equilibria studies of the Bi2O3-V2O5 system disclose that scheelite is the stable high temperature phase; at or below 255 degC it transforms to the fergusonite-structurered phase with corresponding reduction in symmetry from A to B.

注いだ>4% acetic acid solution was then poured into the dish.

    The suspensions were casted on Petri dishes and dried at 35 degC for 24h to obtain flat films which were subsequently treated with saturated solution of NaCl for 3h and washed with distilled water to remove all acid and residual NaCl.

 

相対的〜>Figure 5 shows that relative permittivity levels at 1kHz increase initially in CO2-sintered samples, followed by a decrease with rising [Mn]-concentration with x>0.0112.

   The relative amounts of perovskite and pyrochlore phases present in each sintered ceramic may be calculated from the intensities of the major X-ray reflections for the perovskite and pyrochlore phases.

    By determining the relative density at two or more values of time(t)for constant temperature and pressure, the values of k(XXXX) and log(xxxx) (intercept) can be determined.

 

それ自体は>The presence of oxygen vacancies, in itself, will alter the distribution of negative charges within the crystal structure, also affecting the dipole moments.

捜索した>Direct evidence for these could be sought by chemical etching, followed by SEM.

挿入>Much greater payoffs will come from insertion of SiC/SiC composites into the hottest parts of the engine-the combustor and turbine.

    References have been inserted in three tables for a number of the key papers.

〜族の>The most important applications of the KDP family, which occured in this preperovskite era, werenot strictly ferroelectric: The strong piezoelectric activity in the paraelectric phase of antiferroelectric ammonium dihydrogen phosphate proved extremely useful for higher power sonar transducers, another activity of the Brush Development Company.

足跡をたどる>The early history of ferroelectrics can be traced to pioneering studies on Rochelle Salt and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, two watersoluble crystals.

相互作用>Ferroelectricity, involving as it does the complex interplay of dielectric and elastic behavior in high nonlinear, anisotropic, polarizable, de formable crystals, is perhaps even now almost as much an art as a science.

粗大な>In the earliest studies the ceramics used were largely BaTiO3, processed so as to maintain a rather coarse grain size.

造粒> The mixture was dried, granulated and sieved to extract powder of granule size 90-500μm.

相関>This correlation was expected because of the close similarity between measured fracture-toughness values of mixes 2, 3 and the pressing stage of the preparation of barium-titanate ceramic components has a large effect on the strength of the product.

早期の>This led to premature failure, initiating at these stress concentrators, this did not ‘heal’ during sintering.

 〜層>

ガラス繊維層は、ガラスペーパーであることが好ましい。 The glass fiber is preferably glass paper.

相乗的な>This synergistic improvement in crosslinked and non-crosslinked nanocomposites indicates good chemical compatibility between the two phases, as well as good dispersion.


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