たちつてと which文(〜であるが、それは〜)、℃、(〜という〜)>

た> <あかさたなページに戻る>

例え〜でも、〜>Even 〜、〜 例)Even before beginning the process of selecting a school, 〜

第一、第二、>1st,  2nd,  3rd,  4th,  5th,  6th, 7th,  8th,  9th, 10th

         First,  second,  third,  fourth,  fifth,  sixth,  seventh,  eighth,  ninth,  tenth

たとえ〜としても、>However, even though the degree can be enhanced, the properties are〜

例えば、〜>For example, 〜  文中の例 〜, for example, 〜

e.g. >(例えば、という意味。 読み方はイージー, For example,と同意味。)

          例)(e.g., PLZT )   (e.g. A=Mg2+, Zn2+ , Fe3+ and B=Nb5+ and W6+)

          Also, the enhanced performance in "hard" piezoceramics is only realized under stringent operating conditions (i.e., quite high s and Eac), whereas in (001)-oriented PMN-PT crystal

 

たとえ〜であろうと>My father always preached frugality even though we had money.

          たとえお金があろうと倹約するようにといつも父に言わ れた

〜だけれども、〜>Although 〜, 〜 例)Although I am a private citizen, I have some relationship.

           私は一般市民だが、いくぶんかかわりがある。

〜だけでなく〜もある>He has experience as well as knowledge. 彼は経験だけではなく知識もある。

    Not only is there a tremendous improvement in the microstructure of these ceramics due to hot pressing, but there is also an improvement in their electrical characteristics.

〜だが、〜である >Although the weak-field behavior, T of Kmax in Table II, suggests that a high-field transition should be present by -15℃, the accompanying high-field transition is sometimes obscured.(〜だけれども、)

          The piezoelectric properties are highest at the MPB but the transition temperature is also minimum at MPB.

 

〜に対し、〜>While excellent dielectric and piezoelectric properties were demonstrated with ceramics, the cost of hot pressing〜

〜に対して〜>Engineered substrates consisting of thin films of InP on Si handle substrates have the potential to significantly increase performance while reducing the cost and weight of compound semiconductor solar cells relative to those fabricated on bulk InP substrates.

  Values against temperature for 5600 psi, 2200 phi, and no external pressure (XXXX) indicated that a family of straight lines may be obtained relating log (xxxx) to temperature at various pressures.

〜である、それに対して〜>Fig.1 shows that compositions with x>0 had either initiated or completed crystallization after 5 min at 500 ℃, whereas those with x<0 were still amorphous after the same treatment.

〜に対応する〜>This is also seen clearly in Fig. 3, where the relaxor-properties of the CO2-sintered x=0.0223 sample are to be compared with the absence of relaxationing the corresponding air-sintered sample.

対応策> Please think about that countermeasure

確かに、本当に、〜>Indeed, 〜

確かめる>Sample preparation involved making sure that the loading surfaces were parallel and free from large defects.

〜のために(原因、理由))〜>Due to the fine size of the particles, it was possible〜

           The rate will be low due to the small sectional area of liquid.

           The samples prepared on the production facility showed much higher strength, which may be due to the presence of die lubricant.

           This is due to high sintering temperatures required.

〜のために、〜のおかげで、〜のせいで、〜の事情で>Owing to the prohibition on the use of Pb-based materials, the demand for Pb-free ceramics has grown〜

    Owing to the filling of space by AO12 cuboctahedra and BO6 octahedra in ABO3 systems, the volumes of these two octahedra, Va and Vb are unable to vary independently of each other.

    Owing to its broad, high permittivity Curie maximum, high electrostrictive strain coefficient and relatively low sintering temperature compared to barium titanate, ceramics based on PMN have become strong candidates for many dielectric and electrostrictive applications.

    It has been reported that the ABO3 structure perovskites Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 and Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 (hereafter designated PFN and PNN, respectively) are difficult to fabricate as single-phase ceramics due to the appearance of stable lead-niobate pyrochlore phase on calcination.

    Synthetic iron oxide pigments are of great economical importance due to their chemical stability (i.e. against UV radiation or corrosive gases) and their relatively low production costs.

 

〜は、〜だった。>Calculations of the critical defect size for the diametral compression samples was in the region of 200-400 mm

            Size was in the region of 200-400 mm.   The density of the samples was 4.45 g/cm3.   

〜だろう(推定)>The samples prepared on the production facility showed much higher strength, which may be due to the presence of die lubricant.

            Further, high dielectric loss in the sample may result in depoling on removal of the electric field.

               At room temperature the yellow PbO is metastable and may transform to the stable red PbO on grinding.

            This could be due to the lack of available liquid-phase material.(〜かもしれない)

            The discontinuity at 440 may be due to various reasons.

            each sintered ceramic may be calculated from the intensities〜 

           Further studies on this system are in progress and will be reported elsewhere.

           The amount of amorphous phase that would be necessary to accommodate

           must-will-would の順で可能性[確実性]が低くなる。

           The TGG process is based on relatively conventional powder processing steps and constituents, which makes it an attractive

              low-cost alternative for fabricating high-strain materials.

              This may be due to the high reactivity of these powders since the lead oxalate precipitates were submicron in size and more uniform in shape.

              This may be because electrostrictive PMN-10%PT is a relaxor ferroelectric.

代表的な〜>典型的なも参照のこと。    A representative TEM photomicrograph is shown in Fig.2

    For representative operating conditions-1300degC, 10 atm water vapor, and 100 m/s gas velocity-the recession rate of SiC is about 0.5mm/1000h.

.代表的な例として >as a representative example of       Fig.3 is an example of a typical strain-vs-field plot for the B250141 materials.

〜に達した>In the case of 900M powder only 〜 89% density was reached by hot uniaxial pressing at 870℃.

達成する>During this process contraction took place resulting in the pellets attaining typically 85% of their maximum theoretical density.

    However, the material which attained almost 100% density showed similar shrinkage in both axial and radial directions.

 

〜と対照的に〜>In contrast to the barium-based systems, the substitution of Ce ions into PMN promoted〜

               These results are in contrast to the stress-dependent electromechanical properties of (001)-oriented crystals, which became increasingly nonlinear and hysteretic with increasing t.

〜の対象外である>It should be mentioned that through the diffused E maxima and relaxor-type behavior were reported in some NaNbO3-BaTiO3 solid solution ceramics, the relaxor-like compositions belong to the BaTiO3-rich side of this system and are therefore out of scope of the present work.

重要である。大切である>It is very critical to keep the working temperature at least 25-30 below the transition temperature.

だんだん、徐々に>The Tc of this composition progressively shifted to lower temperatures with increasing substitutions of BaO in the perovskite lattice.

保ちながら>Dextrin acts as a protective colloid, keeping the precipitate highly dispersed.

                 There is difficulty in keeping grease in the joint when it is heated with a burner

たぶん、おそらく〜>Perhaps a more important observation from a technological perspective is that 〜 .

対照的に、〜 その一方、>In contrast, 

大量の〜>This is illustrated by a larger amount of domains available from 〜

ルビジウムを大量にかつ安価に製造することにある。To inexpensively prepare a large amount of rubidium.

大量にかつ簡単に製造することができるパッキン a packing capable of being simply manufactured in large quantities

金属を大量に製造する。 To produce a large quantity of metal

大量生産>Furthermore, the corona discharge method can be used to pole large area samples and may be adapted to continuous process for mass production.

多数の〜>A number of compositional modifications have been studied in the PZT system.

                 Numerous measurements did not reveal significant 〜

第一に、第二に、第三に、最後に、〜>First, 〜, Second,〜, Secondly, 〜, Third,〜 , Finally, 〜.

第一の、最大の、最も>First, and foremost, this temperature lies within〜        foremost expert(第一人者)

ためになる。有益である。>Since this has also been observed for manganese-doping, it is instructive to compare the effects of doping with the two types of ion.

だいたい〜>Ceramic specimens were sintered at about 1100℃ to more than 95% of theoretical density.

            The density of the samples is around 4.25. 論文ではaboutやaroundではなく、なるべくapproximatelyを使うこと。

             〜, which is approximately twice the strain response of a ramdom〜

たいてい〜、しばしば、>〜 the piezoelectric response is often attributed to progressive excitation of 〜

妥当である、妥当な〜>妥当かつ適切と見なされる be considered reasonable and proper

              それが妥当なところでしょう。 That seems reasonable.

              It seems reasonable to assume that

              They must have the appropriate stereochemical configuration.

耐熱性>burning resistance // heat hardiness // heat resistance // heat resistance property

             heat tolerance // heat-resisting properties // heating resistance

             refractoriness // thermal resistance // thermostability

           〜よりも耐熱性の点で優れている have greater heat-resistance than

助けとなる>The MnO additions were also found to aid in the sintering process, further reducing the firing temperature.

短時間、短い時間>An average grain size of 0.5 to 1.5 mm was observed for samples fired at 900 degC or less short durations (<2h), with the grain size increasing to a maximum of about 4 microns for samples fired at 900 degC to 10 h and/or 1000 degC for 5 h.

    To prevent persistence of a display image by the treatment in a short time.  短時間の処理で表示画像の焼き付を防止する。

 

代替となる〜>Pr yellow has been used as a lead-free substitute for these pigments.

    The color of the CeO pigment is almost indistinguishable from the ideal yellow hue and its slightly reddish yellow color makes it suitable as a replacement for the traditional lead-containing yellow pigment used for Arita ware.

体積が増加>Concretely, when the metal film volume is increased, a projection quantity is increased.

             具体的には、金属膜体積が増加すると突出量が増加する。

体積が小さくなり過ぎる>of volume, to become reduced too much

体積がきわめて小さい>of volume,  being extremely small 

大型で重量や体積大きい場合でも、振れ補正機構の動作を容易に調整する。>To make easily adjustable the action of a shake correction mechanism even in the case where it is large-sized and heavy and its volume is large.

凹部21の内部空間の体積は、凸部22の体積よりも大きい。>The volume of the internal spaceof the recessed part 21is larger than that of the protrusion part 22.

体積>In the present system, the volume of the BO6-octahedra will thus be largely controlled by the coordination requirements of the A-site lead ions, which do not change with increasing Mn3+ concentration.

 

単相>A single-phase cubic fluorite structure was observed for pigments with bismuth contents of 20 mol% or lower, whereas Bi2O3 was obserbed as an impurity phase in the dample with a Bi3+ content of 23 mol%.

単調に>The lattice constant decreases monotonically with increasing r4+ content for samples with x<0.37, which indicates the formation of solid solutions.

退色>To avoid elution and discoloration, it is essential that the overglazing of such ceramics and porcelains posses excellent chemical resistance to acids

探索するために>In this study, novel environmental-friendly pigments based on CeO solid solutions have been synthesized to search for a new lead-free yellow pigment for Arita ware.

大気中焼結>In air-sintered samples, this parameter falls immediately to negligible values in Mn-doped samples, in contrast to the bahaviour observed in CO2-sintered samples, where a significant degree of relaxor behaviour is maintained at doping levels of up to 5mol% [Mn].

    It is evident that the hot-pressed ceramic has a smaller grained closer packed structure than the air-sintered ceramic.

〜対〜>Plots of a0 versus x are given in Fig.1.

単純な>Since this substitution has a smaller effect would be expected from straightforward considerations of ionic radius, the inference is that the Mn3+ ions will be located inside octahedra which are too large for them to be located at the O6-octahedral centres.

高い(相当低い)>The corresponding er,max-values are considerably lower in air-sintered samples, showing an overall decrease with increasing manganese concentration.

(より高い)The use of higher pressing pressures to form samples with lower porosity also produced problems.

(とても高い)It was also evident that porosity in the samples prepared from commercial titanate was much higher.

    Switching temperatures were higher than for the other mixes at 180℃.

 

〜を高める(促進する)>The technique is found to enhance the sinterability of PMNT in less oxidizing CO2 atmospheres.

    Switching temperatures were higher than for the other mixes at〜180℃.

 

たいしたことではない>The effect of sintering temperature in the range from 1200 to 1275 degC on phase formation was found to be insignificant, with a single phase of perovskite PMN (yield of 100% within the limitations of the XRD technique) obtained in all cases.

妥協>In addition to producing inelastic strain and degrading composite stiffness and thermal conductivity, microcrackes compromise the efficacy of the matrix in protecting fibers and fiber coatings from the gaseous environment.

大部分は>In contrast, under stress rupture conditions in water vaper at 800 degC, surfaces are mostly flat and fracture mirrors frequently encompass almost the entire fiber cross section.

〜対策>Preparation is required for the new exam with a different method.  新方式の試験の対策をする必要がある。

        Some measures need to be taken quickly. 早急に何らかの対策が必要だ。

 

    Since many noise countermeasures are not necessary, the power tool can be designed to be compact .多くのノイズ対策(対応策)を必要とすることがないので、電動工具をコンパクトに設計することが可能となる。

 

    A countermeasure for noise in the neighborhood is needed. 近隣住民に対して騒音対策(対応策)が必要

 

ただの〜>It was just pretend それはただのウソであった。

     That is just a yarn. それはただの作り話だ。

 

多様化>In the seventies came the age of diversification in which the electrooptic properties, defect chemistry, and electronic conduction phenomena in ferroelectric ceramics were explored.

立ち会う>In the present decade we are witnessing the beginnings of electroceramic integration:

試す、試みる>It was rather natural in the early 1950s, following the wide success of the simple BaTiO-based ceramic transducer, that people should examine other ferroelectric perovskite compounds for potential applicability.

対話>Sidny Lang, in his dialogue with Walter G. Cady, drew out the importance of a historic meeting in 1917 with French scientists, which became a turning point in Cady's career, leading to the establishment of one of the most important programs on piezoelectricity in this country.

多孔性>Mixes 1 and 2 showed porosity values of 14% and 3%, respectively.

タフネス>It was noted that the fracture toughness values for these two materials sintered in nitrogen were also very low.

炭酸>Mix2 contained material prepared in the laboratory from barium carbonate and titanium dioxide.

対立する>The use of slow compaction, as opposed to shock compaction, led to only a small decrease in porosity but to a 120% increase in strength.

種付け> Cells were seeded onto the test materials at 100x103 cells cm-2.

体内>It is expected that the absorption(吸収作用) in PBS solution will provide some indication of the absorption of fluids by these materials while inside the body.

対応する> The corresponding (対応する)crosslinked ones (Figue 3e) had smoother surfaces than the non-crosslinked ones and collagen phase was not easily identifiable in this case also.

代替物>Wood nanocellulose based composites have been recently studied by Mathew et al. for use as ligament or tendon substitutes and showed mechanical performance comparable to that of natural ligaments and tendons.

 


ち> <あかさたなページに戻る>

注意せよ>Note that the B125 specimen was discussed in detail in part one.

注意深く〜、丁寧に>carefully

            He has studied the target carefully, just like a hunter watches its prey.

            ハンターが獲物をじっと見るように、彼は対象を注意深く観察してきました。

注目すべきである>Notice that this capacitor has a leakage current of less than 5x10-8 A/cm2 at 1V.

that以下に注意しなければならない>It should be noticed that B-5 showed a large Pr than C-5 in the ferroelectric regions.

注意する必要>だから、食後に運転する予定がある場合は注意する必要がある。

                                    Therefore, caution is required if you are going to drive after eating narazuke.

〜に対する注意>風によって急に車両ドアが開くことに対する注意を促すことができる車両ドア装置を提供すること。

             To provide a vehicular door device capable of calling attention to the sudden opening of a vehicular door by wind. 

that以下は注目に値する>It is (also) noteworthy that

that以下ということも注意すべきである>It is to be noted that a uniform stress cannot be sustained by

that以下)を留意しなければいけない。>It must be noted that〜

注目すべきは(that以下)である。>It should be noted that 〜

that以下に注目するのは重要である>It is important to notice that this induced 〜

〜に注目が集まっている>Much attention has been paid to the alkaline niobates, and in particular to the potassium sodiumu niobate family, (KNN)

注目は>Attention is also given to unresolved questions and to areas of future work.

〜は調査した、検討した>The dielectric properties of the PMN ceramics was examined as function of frequency and temperature.

〜は調査している、研究している、調べている。>This study investigates the temperature dependence 〜

    It was noted in the first part of this investigation that the samples which attained the highest fired densities, showed similar shrinkage levels in both the axial and radial directions.

調査した>The field-dependent properties of the solid solutions were also probed as a function of temperature.

置換する>Neverthless, it has been generally recognized that minor substitutions of Ba2+ and Sr2+ on the Pb2+-site of the perovskite PMN lattice led to a decrease in the Curie temperature with a corresponding increase in the dielectric constant.

        Minor substitutions of Ba2+ for Pb2+ to the perovskite solid solution lattice were made to obtain〜

        This was accomplished by substituting an amount of Ba2+ for Pb2+ in the perovskite lattice.

        An SEM micrograph showing the grain morphology of a Ba-substituted solid solution is shown in Fig.1

        It was evident that the substitution of Ba2+ in the PMN solid solution lattice allowed the 〜.

        The highest value of the dielectric constant was attained with a substitution of 1mol% BaO, which can be represented by the composition (Pb0.99Ba0.01)-[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.9Ti0.1]O3.

       Substitution of InP/Si substrates for bulk InP in the fabrication of such a four-junction solar cell could significantly reduce the substrate cost, as described below.

    In the region that the single fluorite phase is obtained, the XRD peaks shifted to lower angles with increasing Bi3+ content, because Ce4+ and Zr4+ in the host lattice are partially substituted by larger Bi3+ ions to form solid solutions.

置換していない>These are thought to perform a 'bridging function' between the polarisation clusters responsible for the relaxor-type responsible for the relaxor-type response in unsubstituted PMNT.

重要である。大切である>It is very critical to keep the working temperature at least 25-30 below the transition temperature.

明らかな差、違いである。>This is a significant difference.

〜の違いは〜、〜の差は〜、>The difference in the leakage characteristics of the PT and Ru capacitors is

          The largest differences between the field-dependent properties of the ordered and

違う〜>Different corona point arrangements having 1,5, and 32 needles were used.

着実に、>All compositions showed a steady increase in longitudinal strain with decreasing temperature and an abrupt increase in the strain hysteresis at a well-defined temperature.

〜の近くでは、〜>Near the coercive field level,

〜の近くで〜>This was achieved by means of a thermocouple placed in the vicinity of the sample.

〜に近い〜では>At temperatures close to zero-field relaxor-to-normal transition, there is evidence for a double hysteresis loop .

〜に近い> Mechanical performance of the sterilized nanocomposites was close to that of natural ligament and tendon, in simulated body conditions.

 

C地点では、〜>At point C, 〜

直線的に>linearly

                 The relationship was found not to be linear as one would expect for a complete solid solution system.

    The lattice constant of the cubic fluorite phase increased linearly with increasing Bi3+ doping within the composition range of the single-phase fluorite structure.

直線>The date of Fig. 4 indicate the agreement obtained between experimental points and the calculated family of straight lines defined by equation (5).

直接の direct

直径〜>Disks 1.59 cm in diameter and 3-4 mm in thickness were pressed in which a 3 wt% polyvinyl alcohol binder had been added.

    Samples 13 mm diameter and 2-3mm thick were used for diametral compression testing, beam specimens being prepared from discs 40 mm diameter and 4mm thick.

 

直径>Sintered grain diameter was found to vary typically between 3 and 8 mm, falling off in the 10 mol% doped sample to 2-3 mm.

    The collagen fibrils had diameters below 100nm.

 

長時間の加熱によって>〜by heating for a long period of time,

長時間>〜for a long time

近頃の〜>The coloration of the latter pigments is derived from iron and antimony.

超過した>The lattice volume was constant for samples with Bi3+ contents exceeding the composition limit to form solid solutions in a single phase.

長波長>Although the sample with a composition of CeO exhibited the highest absorption at long wavelength, the optical reflection in the visible region decreases in this sample due to the presence of Bi2O3 as an impurity.

抽出した>The PMN pellets were extracted for weighing, to verify that all the binder had been removed.

     Total RNA was extracted from HLC or HEC using the RNeasy Micro kit.

     The liquid extract was performed according to ISO 10993-12: ‘Biological evaluation of Medical Devices-Part 12- Sample preparation and reference materials’ The  cell system used was Balb/c 3T3 checked free from mycoplasma.

 

頂点>Perhaps an appropriate culmination for the Rochelle Salt period came with a series of four papers by H.Mueller of MIT appearing from 1935 to 1940, they effectively summarized the experimental information of the early period and clearly propounded the static phenimenology which become the basis for Devonshire's later treatment in barium titanate.

中間の>We have termed the decade from 1930 to 1940 the intermediate KDP period.

中心(中核)>Studies associated with the names of H.Jaffe, B.Jaffe, and H.A.Kreuger in that group were at the heart of the development.

〜をチェックする>check e-mails(メールをチェックする)

緻密化sample is important both to permit the dopant to diffuse into the crystal >Densification of the “green” lattice and to improve the mechanical strength of the component through the formation of a liquid phase.

兆候>An x-y plotter was used to produce load-deflection curves which allowed determination of the onset of cracking.

着色> 着色材は色と溶媒とからなる。

       The coloring material contains the coloring material and a solvent.

 


つ> <あかさたなページに戻る>

通常、〜>Normally, 〜   Printing was normally carried out on 〜

      Usually, PZT ceramics and piezoelectric composites are poled in 〜

    Poling was usually carried out by cooling electroded samples through the Curie temperature at 120 degC under a substantial biasing potential, the optimum conditions for individual formulation being established by trial-and-error methods.

    Normally a temperature of 85% of the material melting temperature is required and in many cases a liquid phase is used to fill the smaller pores.

通常の〜、従来の>The ceramics were fabricated using the conventional oxide-mixing technique. / the mixed oxide method / the solid-state reaction method /

       Conventional bridge circuits are used for both detectors. (文頭の例)

    Figure 7 is a photomicrograph of a hot-pressed 50-50 niobate ceramic, and Fig. 8 is a photomicrograph of a conventionally prepared ceramic.

 通常の睡眠は2つの段階からなる Normal sleep is made up of two phases.

区切り文字は、通常はコロンです。The delimiting character is usually the colon.

 

つまり、(すなわち)〜>i.e. 読み方は"that is" 例)〜and other compositions (i.e., Z5T5, F5T5, B5T5, and S5T5) were used 〜

〜に続いて〜>Following the observation that higher temperatures were required to increase the ordering in PMN, we investigated the

    In the following decades, the concepts of soft modes and order parameters lead to the age of "high science" in the sixties.

    Mix 1, following annealing, showed a similar resistivity change to the group sintered in air, but a shallower gradient.

続く〜>These findings are detailed in the following sections.

続いて起こる〜>Although open pores and cracks can be partially during subsequent PIP cycles, the resulting material remains friable and contributes little to matrix strength.

    The stress-relaxation studies of these fibrous composites indicated possible orientation of fibrils and subsequent increase in stress under load.

 

次のような〜>The unpoled sample had the following characteristics: density =5.7〜

次>Next, Harry took the stand in the trial.   次にハリーが事件の証人台に立った

〜づつ、ずつ、刻みで、間隔で>Films were grown at temperatures from 500 to 700 ℃, in steps of 50℃, as well as at 575 and 625℃.

〜については、〜、〜に関しては〜>Regarding film deposition techniques,

            For the InP/Si substrates used for the growth of InGaAs solar cells,

強く依存している>was found to depend strongly on both chemical composition and heat treatment temperature.

    The levels of porosity of the fired pellets were largely dependent on the partial pressure of oxygen present in the sintering atmosphere.

 

強い、強力な>All sample exhibited strong optical absorption at wavelength below 500 nm.

〜を通じて〜>We demonstrate conditions under which 180 domain wall motin can contribute, through a dynamic poling process, to the piezoelectric

           Through careful control of the precursors and the spinning conditions, continuous high quality green fiber can be produced〜

〜から作られた〜>Transducers made from other PZT materials for operation at higher frequencies, such as 3.5-5 MHz, also exhibit 〜

〜は作られた、形成された>Back side and front side contacts were made using Ti/Au contacts on

使える、使用できる>In the present work, we demonstrate that third harmonic generation (THG) of light can be used in single-shot experiments to 〜(THGがシングルショット機器に使用できる)

ついに、結局、>The CO2-based curve ultimately cross that of the air-sintered at a manganese concentration of approximately 7 mol%.

つきとめる>With 112 atoms unit cell, it was not until 1941 that Beevers and Hughes in England made the first X-ray structure analysis and it was not until 1954 that the detailed neutron diffraction data of Fraser et al. was finally able to pin down the trouble some water molecules. 

追加>私はそれを電話に追加します。I will add it to my phone.


て> <あかさたなページに戻る>

「文」である事は〜である。>(強調構文) It is 〜 that +文.

      注意) It is 〜that文の多用は、退屈な感じを与えるので注意する。   

       It is clear that PZT is used for piezoceramics. PZTが圧電セラミックスに使用されている事は明らかである。

       同類、発展形) It is known that 〜, It was observed that 〜, etc

      It is known through measurements of the dielectric constant e as a function of T that 〜

〜することが、たぶん出来る(可能である)>They could be produced by diffraction from the MgO substrate.

          couldはcanよりも根拠が弱い時に使う。willとwouldの関係。

〜することが出来る(可能である)>They can be produced by diffraction from the MgO substrate.

 〜することが出来る>The B-ions would thus be able to show larger off-centre displacements, with associated increased dipole moments and higher values of T(Er,max).

この詩はオランダ語で書かれているので、彼女には理解することが出来る。This poem is written in Dutch so she can understand it.

できる>In the present work, we demonstrate that third harmonic generation (THG) of light can be used in single-shot experiments to 〜(THGがシングルショット機器に使用できる)

する事が出来た(許された)>Samples were allowed to dry in air before being placed in an oven at 180 degC for 2h.

〜で出来ている>本は紙で出来ている。A book is made of paper.

この建物は石で出来ている。This building is made of stone.

 

〜は、提示している。(示している)>Figure 6 and 7 present the compositional effects〜.

    The effect of the main processing parameters was determined by adjustments to the variables set out in Table?.

 

〜を提示した。(報告する)>The dielectric properties of the ceramics are presented.

    Fang and Hsieh showed that, because of the higher compaction pressures that could be applied without cracking, wet powders produced less porous compacts than dry powders.

提示する>As has been set out in the Introduction, the positional parameterrs

 

見せる、呈する>These pigment  exhibited brilliant blue colors in comparison with those of commercial products and have high chemical and light resistance.

 

〜を提案する。>We propose that the nanolevel order

    Their proposed rate equation for the hot pressing of ceramics was found to hold for alumina and for fused silica.

提案されているように〜> Thus, as has been proposed earlier (11) , a natural clustering into

    Proposed strategies for mitigating CMAS attack while maintaining resistance to recession from water vapor are based on multilayered coating designs.

提案される、提唱される> It is proposed that, through the formation of large dipoles, these ions are able to effect a change from a polarization cluster type of structure to one consisting essentially of macroscopic ferroelectric domains.

〜that以下は提案されている。>It has (also) been proposed that rhombohedral nanodomains, in which the 〜

〜程度の〜>Since the Tm of PMN-PT is as low as 〜650℃, it can be expected that 〜

              PMN-PTのTmは650℃程度の低さであるので、〜

             Electric field as high as 8kV/mm were applied but no piezoelectricity was observed.

     Table 2 shows the data of the tensile testing of collagen, cellulose nanofibres and the nanocomposites in room conditions as well as in simulated body conditions of 98% RH and 37 degC.

 

〜オーダーの〜 〜程度の〜>Tensile strains of the order of 0.03% were obtained.

〜程度である>The room temperature dielectric constant is of the order of 350.

程度、大きさ、度合い>The magnitude of kp at room temperature is of the .

               The degree of poling of PT-BF-polymer composites was determined〜

〜であるべきである。>It should be easy to 〜  〜は簡単であるべきである。

             It should be pointed out that 文〜  that以下に注目するべきである。

            It should be note that 文〜  that以下に注目するべきである。

〜であるけども、〜である。Although〜, 文〜>Although BNT bulk does not show good piezoelectricity, the BNT film prepared did exhibit good piezoelctricity.

           Although not detected by x-ray diffraction, TEM has shown a second phase is a conductive phase.

〜であるが、〜である。>Several other modifications of the BNT-based solid solutions have been studied but they are far less attractive compared to BNT-BT systems.

Whereas most of these have enabled the synthesis of pyrochlore-free, perovskite PMN, the dielectric properties vary considerably between methods.

〜ではないが、〜である>The shifts in Tm were not only grain size dependent, but process related as well.

>That is pudding, not yoghurtそれはヨーグルトではなくプリンです。

>That is not tomorrow, but today.それは明日ではなく今日です。

>He is not a teacher but a doctor.彼は教師ではなくて医者です。

 

〜であると〜>The dielectric values were measured to be a K of 〜10 for 650M powder composite.

                  MPB composition in the BNT-BKT system has been reported to be in the range of 16-20 at% BKT.

    The sample compositions were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (Rigaku, ZSX-100e) and found to be in good agreement with theoretical values.(〜であることが分かった)

     The chemical composition of the nanofibres were considered to be same as the raw material as no chemical treatments are done during fibrillation(解繊).

 

〜であるが、〜 >While the results are not yet understood, B5T5 showed very promising results: a low dielectric constant, a high peak strain, and a high peak polarization. (その結果はまだ理解されていない、〜)

〜はデザインされた、設計された>Using this as the guideline a composition given as (Li0.03Na0.55K0.42) NbO3 was designed.

〜では、〜>In 〜, 〜  In the NFL, 〜    At point C, 〜 (C点では、〜)    For this study,  (本研究では)

     In carbon dioxide, by comparison, the extent of the oxidation to the +3 state will be much smaller.

    At partial pressures below 0.2 bar, extremely poor electrical and mechanical properties were obtained.

〜では〜>PbMgNbO9 is cubic in the paraelectric phase and ferroelectric below the Curie temperature (-8C).

低下させること>a small amount of MnO2 was added to the compositions prior to sintering that helped lowering the dissipation factor of the ceramics.

             加齢に伴う腎機能の低下 decrease in kidney function with age

             家庭での教育の低下 decline of education in the home

             学力水準の低下 lowering of scholastic standards

            急激な温度の低下 extreme lowering of temperature

〜から〜に低下した>However, there is a rapid decrease in sintered density between 6.5 and 10 mol%[Mn], falling from 95 to 87% of maximum density.

低下(密度の低下)>Again sintered density falls between the 6.5 and 10 mol% doped samples.

    As porosity increased to 22% the strength dropped to only 25% of the strength value at low porosity (<1%).

 

低温で>These compositions were also found to density at low temperatures and had grain size effects similar to that of 0.6PFN-0.4PNN.

〜を展開させた、発展させた、進化させた>First an optimized processing procedure was evolved for obtaining the dense ceramics of each composition.

適度に>Their forthcoming use in moderately loaded components, such as shrouds, will undoubtedly yield valuable experience for engine OEMs.

適切な>appropriate amounts of reagent grade 〜

    Swartz and Shrout and Voss, et al. reported that by first prereacting the B site refractory oxide of such Pb(B1/2B1/2)O3 and/or Pb(B1/3B2/3)O3 perovskites to form the appropriate columbite BB2O6, or wolframite BBO4, compounds, and then followed by reaction with PbO, the amount of pyrochlore phase is greater reduced.

    Full crystallization requires removal of the latter elements by suitable heat treatment.

〜は適切、適当である>It is reasonable to ask whether rhombohedral symmetry should not also exist 〜

             Thus it is reasonable to ask whether rhombohedral symmetry should not also exist 〜

             妥当かつ適切と見なされる be considered reasonable and proper

            それが妥当なところでしょう。 That seems reasonable.

            It seems reasonable to assume that

            They must have the appropriate stereochemical configuration.

適当に、適切に〜した〜は、>Properly washed cellulose is clean and burns off completely〜

    However, for the basic science, the published record is generally available and the credit already properly apportioned.

適している、適する>The electrode is well suited for continuous measurements.

          Some other transistors did not appear to be suitable for

         The energies are just appropriate to elevate

     The composition of these pigments has been optimized and their color properties have been found to be suitable for Arita ware.

典型的な、典型的に>典型的に typically     Examples illustrating the preparation of typical compounds will hereinafter be described.

〜の典型例として言及される>be mentioned as a typical example of

典型的な例として>〜as a typical example   /   A typical polarization-field loop is shown in Fig.4 for the B250141 materials.

    Typically 150ml of fluid was used for each 140g charge of chemicals.

 

定性的に(質的に)>The parameter L* represents the brightness or darkness of a color relative to a neutral grey scale, while the parameters a* (the red-green axis) and b*(the yellow-blue axis) qualitatively express the color.

定量分析>Quantitative analysis of grain size and porosity was carried out by means of the Imanal computerized analysis package.

定義する>A ferroelectric domain is defined as a region with 〜

訂正 >Corrections for absorption effects were subsequently carried out

フィットする、一致する、合う、適合する>〜 indicated that good fits were consistently obtained for 〜

出来る限り〜、可能な限り〜>〜it is very important to depress this phase transition temperature from room temperature to as low as possible.

〜は提供される>For many applications, the high electromechanical coupling and large mechanical quality factors offered by these materials have been the main criteria for a good device material.

丁寧に、注意深く〜>carefully

デモンストレートした>In this letter, we demonstrated InGaAs solar cell fabrication on layer-transferred InP/Si substrates.

     Recently, Eyholzer et al., demonstrated the potential of carboxymethylated nanofibrillated cellulose hydrogen’s for the replacement of nucleus pulposus (髄核)in intervertebral discs.(椎間板)

〜that以下をデモする>In the present work, we demonstrate that third harmonic generation(THG) of light can be used 〜.

電気的に electrically

 

徹底的に、余すとこなく thoroughly

定量分析>Quantitative analysis of grain size and porosity was carried out by means of the 〜

〜添加の〜>The effect of the MnO additions on the resistivity for various firing conditions is presented in Fig.3.

                          The coefficients could also be modified simply by varying the Tc with additions of PbTiO3 (PT).

 添加した>Firstly, in order to improve the dielectric loss and resistivity, small amounts of MnO were added, as reported elsewhere.

                 KCl was added to the powders as an internal standard.

    All other groups had the binder added after milling.

    The Bi2O3 pigment was added to four commercially available lead-free frits, two of which are used for overlayer painting (Frit A and Frit B) and two of which are used for line drawing (Frit C and Frit D)

    Figure 4 shows the effect of MnO additions on the dielectric loss as a function of temperature.

    The binder was added prior to milling in sample groups 8 and 3a as a 2.5% solution of glucose and poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA)in distilled water.

    By adding the binder prior to milling, a more even coating of each grain was accomplished and the strength of the green samples increased by over 150%.

〜が添加された〜> BaTiO3 powders added with an addtive component for adjusting characteristics are used as the BaTiO3 powders.

 

 電気抵抗>For both firing conditions shown in Fig.3, a very large increase in resistivity was found for additions of MnO as low as 0.005wt% with further improvements being realized with increasing amounts of MnO.

抵抗変化>Mix 1 showed the largest resistance change, over three decades, with a switching temperature of 145℃.

 

電気炉で>The overglazed decoration pigment was painted on porcelain panels coated with limestone glazes and the panels were heated in an electric furnace at 1073 K for 30 min at a heating rate of 100 K min-1.

電気的特性>The electrical characteristics following sintering in 100% nitrogen are presented in Figs 5 and 6.

    Electrical characteristics were limited to establishing resistance-temperature plots.

伝統的な>it has a different tone from these traditional pigments

    These results demonstrate that the medium yellow pigment traditionally used in Arita ware but which contains lead and antimony can be faithfully replicated by the present CeO pigment, which does not contain any toxic elements.

伝導帯>With a voltage in an 'OFF' state, energy levels of a conduction band 24 and a valence band 25 are in a state of (a).

電圧OFFの状態では伝導帯24、価電子帯25のエネルギー順位は(a)の状態にある。

電荷移動、電荷遷移>The coloring mechanism of these CeO2-ZrO2-Bi2O3 materials is based on charge transfer from O2p to Ce4f in the CeO2 band structure.

電子構造> electronic structure

テストは>This test was performed using the small dish shown in Fig.7.

    Fig. 5 shows the results of the diametral compression tests on the green pellets.

ディスク状サンプル>Disk-shaped samples for dielectric measurement of thickness 1.5mm were sawn out of the sintered pellets.

テクニック、技術>The local environments of the B-ions in the presence of oxygen vacancies remain to be investigated, by techniques such as EXAFS, EELS and MASNMR.

適用されている>Several innovative techniques, for example the columbite mixed oxide, coprecipitation and partial oxalate synthetic routes, have been applied to this.

    A Lloyd 6000R testing machine was used to apply four-point loading to these specimens at a rate of 2mm.

低温溶融>Numerous thermochemical processes have been observed, including consumption of BN through formation of low-melting borosilicate glasses and subsequent formation of borohydroxide gases; replacement of BN by silica, which bonds well to fibers and the matrix and prevents crack deflection in interfacial regions; and reactions with free carbon (when present) within the fibers that lead to strength degradation and subcritical crack growth.

出くわす>The problem encountered in conventional processing has been that of obtaining a homogeneous, dense ceramic with an extremely fine grained microstructure.

提供>The provision of a SERC studentship for one of us (JMB) is gratefully acknowledged.

伝播>However, repeat switching leads to the initiation and propagation of cracks due to thermal shock and fatigue, and improvements to the mechanical properties of the material are therefore also important.

定理>The values of K are obtained for any particular temperature using the best fit of the date by the theorem of least squares.

データ>The data collected (収集したデータ)were used for further calculations and analysis.


と >  <あかさたなページに戻る>

〜ということに注意される(する)べきである。>It should be noted that the optimum〜

          It must be noted that〜

that以下に注目すべきである>It is noteworthy that 〜

 

〜と考えられる。「文章」であるように考えられる。>It seems that + 文.

            It seems that PZT is used for piezoceramics.

           同類、発展形) This indicates that 〜, This means that 〜, This results suggest that 〜, etc.

         注>「〜と思われる、考えられる」はなるべく使わないで、(〜は〜だ)と断定する事。 

          This problem need more investigation and is still open to discuss.

         (この問題はさらなる研究が必要であり、いまだに議論の余地がある。)

一般的には〜と考えられている。>It is considered that 〜, It is thought that〜

〜と同様に、〜>Similar to 〜, 〜 

同様に、〜>Similarly, 〜

    Similarly, the room -temperature dc resistivity is essentially the same for either processing method.

同様に、同じように>Likewise, in CO2, the higher oxide Mn3O4 can form〜

    In turn, composites exhibit hgh thermal conductivity in-plane and through-thickness, high interlaminar strength, and hgh-in-plane matrix cracking stress.

同様に、これに対して、>Correspondingly, 〜

同様な〜>A similar procedure was utilized in the〜

Bと同様の〜>A as well as B Bと同様にA

          The properties of samples as well as vacuum-sintered material were recorded.

          真空焼結材と同様の試料の特性が記録された。

同様の部品を並べる ordinate similar parts

〜と同様(同時に)に〜>He is a great researcher as well as a great doctor.

〜と同時に〜>As soon as a specific amount of degradation is reached, a certain defect distribution is formed.

同時に〜>At the same time, the salt. dehydrates the viscose.

〜と共に(一緒に)>Table 2 shows the L*a*b* color coordinate data for the CeO pigments together with those of commercially available praseodymium yellow and chrome yellow.

〜と(大きさが)同程度である>comparable (in magnitude) to 〜

同程度、匹敵する、比較可能>This performance was comparable to that of the InGaAs cells grown on bulk

    Consequently, the CeO pigment has the most yellowish hue, it is comparable with that of the commercial praseodymium yellow.

〜と(大きさが)同等である>The sensitivity and bandwidth of fiber composite transducers also are the same as the dice-and fill composites.

同等か高い>Because infiltration temperatures are high (1400-1500), the RMI process, too, can be used only with fibers that have been processed at comparable or higher temperatures.

〜という〜>

          The response was measured using LCR brige which can cover a frequency range from 20 to 100 Hz.

          (20から100Hzの周波数をカバー出来るというLCRブリッジ)

           The highest longitudinal strain value of 0.079% was obtained for the Z5T5 sample.

         (最上級, 0.079%という値が得られた, ofは”〜という”といった意味を持つ

          They came to the conclusion that important changes are taking place in the ceramic industry.

          (セラミック産業界に重要な変化が生じているという結論に彼らは到達した。)

      Other densification methods that have proved to be successful for ferroelectric ceramics in more recent years are 〜

      ここ数年において強誘電体セラミックスについて成功していると認められているという他の緻密化方法は〜である。

           SWING is a suitable note in which to write down your words.

           (”SWING”は”あなたの言葉を書きとめる”というのに最適なノートです

          Dielectric measurements were carried out on an automated system, whereby a temperature-control box and LCR meters were controlled by a desk-top computer system.  ( 〜という自動化されたシステム )

〜という〜  特性を示す事を表記したい時の案  注>〜程度の も参照の事

       Compositions with x>0.6-0.8 were found to density at sintering temperatures < 1000 ℃, having peak dielectric constants k>15000 and a relatively low temperature coefficient of capacitance change.

       The family of complex perovskite compounds Pb(AB)O3 (e.g. A=Mg, Zn, Fe, and B=Nb and W) are excellent commercial ferroelectric ceramics mainly due to their low firing temperature ( 〜1000℃), which leads to a reduction in the cost of internal electrods, very high dielectric constant (K>12000 at 20 ℃) and their temperature-insenstive characteristic response (arising from a diffuse phase transition).

コバルトブルーという濃青色の顔料>a dark blue pigment called cobalt blue

ターコイズブルーという色>a colour called turquoise blue

 

〜というところの〜>Recently, Bonner, Marcos and Van Uitert reported on the dielectric and electro-optic properties of large crystals that were grown by the Kyropoulous technique.

〜といった、〜>Measurements of other properties, such as X-ray and pyroelectric coefficients, suggest that〜

         In hydrophones, the active element is a solid piezoelectric ceramic materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT).

〜ということは、〜>The growth of the PMN single crystals required excess PbO, which is known to reduce the dielectric properties of PMN-PT.

         The samples were translucent, which implies clean grain boundaries and a high density.

〜というのは、〜>An electroless Ni-coating, which served as an electrode , was applied to the parallelfaces .

〜として、〜>Measure K value was determined as a function of grain size and presented in Fig.3 as the series model.

    It has been reported that the ABO3 structure perovskites Pb(Fe1/2Nb1/2)O3 and Pb(Ni1/3Nb2/3)O3 (hereafter designated PFN and PNN, respectively) are difficult to fabricate as single-phase ceramics due to the appearance of stable lead-niobate pyrochlore phase on calcination.

    However, the lattice constant became constant for the sample with x=0.41 because ZrO2 was observed as an impurity phase.

〜としては、〜>   I am 6feet tall, which is prettty tall for a Japanese. 私は背は180cmであり、それというのは(which) 日本人としてはすごく背の高い方です。

〜とする〜>This dynamical phenomenological description provided the vital link whereby the static phenomenologies of Mueller and Devonshire could be interconnected with tractable atomistic descriptions through the elementary excitations of the crystal lattice.

〜としての機能を果たすために〜>To serve as a substrate for nucleation and growth of the desired phase, the template〜.

〜した時、〜>When a field was applied to a sample, the oscilloscope acquired 〜

〜か〜のどちらかを〜>Either ethanol or 1-propanol was used as the solvent.

 

〜にともなって〜>The intensity increased with increasing La-content〜(La量が増加するにともなって強度は増加した)

          In addition to the observed K dependency, the temperature Tm increased with decreasing grain size.

           With increasing levels of Tb,

          It appears that both Kmax and Tmax decrease with addition of ST.

       As can be seen from these figures that with increasing BKT composition the permittivity increases and diffuseness of the phase transition is decreased.

                                    It is interesting to note that compositions near to PFN showed virtually no relaxational character, but with increasing amounts of PNN, the dielectric maximums decreased and showed more and more frequency dispersion.

    In the region that the single fluorite phase is obtained, the XRD peaks shifted to lower angles with increasing Bi3+ content, because Ce4+ and Zr4+ in the host lattice are partially substituted by larger Bi3+ ions to form solid solutions.

〜にともなってどうなる>JR West Japan took over the facility in 1987, following the breakup and privatization of Japanese National Railways.

〜をともなう>However, the formation of lead magnesium niobate perovskite is often accompanied by the occurrence of a secondary pyrochlore-type phase.

    One of the principal damage mechanisms operating in SiC/SiC composites involves matrix microcracking, accompanied by interfacial debonding and fiber-matrix sliding.

遠ざかると〜、離れると〜>Moving away from the MPB increases the transition temperature but piezoelectric properties decrease significantly.

特徴づける、決定する>The crystalline phases were characterized by 〜

            The spectrum of NO3 in water is characterized by a weak maximum at

                                  The pigment were characterizedby X-ray powder diffraction (XRD; Rigaku, SmartLab) with Cu-Ka radiation (40kV and 30mA).

〜の特徴>〜and phase transitional characteristics of these materials.

                           This relaxor characteristic has been attributed to a statistical inhomogeneity in the distribution of the B-site cations creating microregions of varying transition temperatures (Tc).

特有の、特徴的な、独特の>Vividly colored overglazed products, a distinctive class of ceramics known as Arita ware, are unique to Saga.

日本酒に特有の味 a flavor peculiar to sake

 

特徴的な>The latter shows, moreover, a characteristic relaxor response, with shifts in the permittivity peak to higher temperatures with increasing frequency.

〜がどんなでも、〜>Whatever 〜,  〜

           Whatever the topic, my views are always diametrically opposed to those of the other directors.

           トピックがどんなものであれ、私の意見は他の役員とは正反対だ。

どのような〜でも、〜しなかった>Any irreversibility in the domain wall motion is incorporated into the irreversible Rayleigh coefficients for the piezoelectric properties.(否定文でのany)

どこでも、いつでも>Over the 1960 to 1970 period the full weight of the information from inelastic neutron, Raman, Brillouin, and Rayleigh scattering, together with NMR, NOR, and EPR wherever appropriate, was brought to bear in veryfying and extending the soft-mode description.

特に、〜>In particular, 〜  /  The values were high, particularly, at temperatures below the Curie point

                Composites of piezoelectric ceramics and polymers and , in particular, fiber-based composites

                  Clearly, it is shown that MnO additions reduce dielectric loss, particularly the low frequency losses which are attributed to conduction processes.

    All of these involve heating and cooling of the material and thus they introduce thermal stresses, particularly when the material is subjected to mains voltages (XXXX).

    HLC are well differentiated and able to synthsize ECM, particularly collagen type I and III.

〜に到達した>In the case of 900M powder only 〜 89% density was reached by hot uniaxial pressing at 870℃.

 

〜によって同定された。>This impurity phase was identified via TEM.

同定された>From X-ray diffraction, the oxidised product was identified as Mn2O3, corresponding to a manganese state of +3.

     The fractured surface of crosslinked collagen, shown in Figure 3c, was smoother, and two phases (fibrous and non-fibrous) were not easily identifiable.

    The final product at 1000 degC in CO2 was identified by XRD as Mn3O4 (i.e.Mn2O3.MnO) with a small amount of MnO.

同定、〜の補助を受けて>Identification of crystalline phases was accomplished by X-ray diffraction, aided when necessary by selected-area electron diffraction (SAD).

 

℃(ど)の表現方法>The dielectric properties of PMN pyrochlore were measured between 20 and 120 at 100 kHz.

                (20から120℃で測定された。最初の20の後に℃はつけない、もしくは付けても°だけでいい。 例> 20°and 120℃)

                The powders were then calcined at temperatures from 750 to 800 ℃ for 4 hours.

   別の表現       〜 over temperature ranges of 210-420K for PMN.

                 〜 in the temperature range of 1250°-1350℃         The sintering temperature of the ceramics was 1150.

〜度でどうした>Long soaking time were performed at temperatures of 300, 600,700,900,and 1300 degC.

       〜for firing temperatures in the 1150-1250 degC range.

南緯23度付近   a line of latitude about 23 degrees to the south of the equator

努力は〜に向けられていた。>The initial effort was mainly directed towards assessing the parametric relationships between sintered density and microstructural characteristics as function of sintering temperature.

努力によって>By this effort, 〜

ところで、〜>「ところで」といった話題を変える場合は、〜については、〜   For 〜, 〜を検討すること。

度合い、程度>The magnitude of kp at room temperature is of the .

        The degree of poling of PT-BF-polymer composites was determined

取り組む>A great deal of effort has recently dedicated to the manufacturing and engineering of lead-containing relaxor perovskite compounds.

取り扱う>This article deals with the sintering stage of forming PMN ceramics, utilising starting powders which have been synthesized optimally to produce single phase perovskite PMN.

当然のことながら、〜>Understandably,

〜かどうか〜>A secondary question is whether this symmetry can be regarded as macroscopic or whether it is confined to polar clusters within a matrix of cubic symmetry. 二番目の質問は、この対照性がマクロスコピックであると考え られるのかどうか、又は、立方晶対照性のマトリックス内にお ける極性クラスターに限定されるのかどうかである。

 

これが許されるかどうか whether this is permitted

 試薬特級の〜>These products were mixed, as above, with reagent grade PbO (yellow) and/or reagent grade PbTiO3.

 導電性>This is believed to be due to the partial reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ leading to the increased electron hole conductivity commonly associated with Pb compounds.

ドーピング>Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.

    This manganese-doping technique, with its ability to switch between relaxor and normal ferroelectric properties, offers great potential for chemical control of dielectric properties, along with the possible generation of novel, highly active piezoelectric ceramics.

ドープした試料>Doped samples of composition 95PMN-5PT were prepared by combining Mn(CO3)2 and PbO powders (both BDH Analar Grade) with the PMNT powder.

    For doped materials, a minimum temperature is required to enable the dopant, in this case holmium, to replace some of the host barium in the crystal lattice.

塗布した>Fig.6 depicts overglazed porcelain panels heated at 1073K on which the present CeO2 pigment ( which does not contain any toxic elements ) and the traditional yellow pigment ( which contain lead and antimony ) were applied.

毒性の>These results demonstrate that the medium yellow pigment traditionally used in Arita ware but which contains lead and antimony can be faithfully replicated by the present CeO pigment, which does not contain any toxic elements.

毒物及び劇物取締り法  Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Act

貯蔵安定性に優れ、特に毒性がなく(あるいは毒性が低く)、環境に対し悪影響の小さな、かつ粘度が低いことによる作業性が良好な硬化性組成物を提供する。

    To provide a curable composition which has excellent storage stability, is especially free from toxicity (or low in toxicity), is less in adverse effect to the environment and is good in workability by virtue of its low viscosity.

生体組織に対する毒性が低い、新規高分子殺菌性材を提供すること。

    To provide a new polymeric microbicidal material having low toxicity to biological tissues.

透明>There are two kind of traditional yellow pigments used in the overglazing of Arita ware: a slightly brownish yellow pigment with a high transparency known as kibi-iro and reddish yellow pigments with high chromatic contrasts known as koiki, chuuki, and usuki.

〜する時、〜>However, praseodymium yellow is slightly bluish conpared with koiki and it has a different tone from these traditional pigments even when color matching is performed using other paints.

導入>The introduction of manganese into PMNT, however, has profound effects on its dielectric properties.

統合>In its most successful implementation, the process begins with CVD of BN/SiC coating onto tows of SiC fibers (not woven fabric), incorporation of SiC and carbon particles and a polymer binder via wet drum winding to produce unidirectional prepreg tapes, lay-up and autoclave consolidation of the tapes in the desired geometric configuration, binder burnout, and finally, infiltration of molten silicon.

    Ferroelectric transducers and capacitors are being integrated into multilayer package along with ceramic substrates, metallic interconnect circuitry, and ceramic resistors.

動力学>It is perhaps interesting to note that, as in Rochelle Salt, the finger points of the kinetics of changes at Tc remained puzzling for a long period.

同時>The simultaneous but independent realization of the soft-modes description of ferroelectricity in the perovskite by Anderson in the United States and Cochran in the United Kingdom provided the avenue for coupling ferroelectric studies into the mainstream of solid state research and provided just the right framework with which to exploit the full power of the emerging new techniques of laser Raman spectroscopy and neutron inelastic scattering for the study of phonon spectra.

どっしりとした>His massive contribution to the science of piezoelectricity is admirably summarized in his book Piezoelectricity, first published in 1946, and still a classic in the field.

特定の>A later development was the demonstration by Egerton and Dillon at Bell Laboratories of morphotropic boundary in the NN:KN solid solution system and piezoelectric with compositions near the KNN boundary are still hot-pressed by Bausch and Lomb for specialized applications.

等モル>The fine structure and improved piezoelectric activity, especially near the equimolar composition, make these material desirable for electromechanical transducers, particularly in the 10 to 20 Mc per second range.

同一の〜>This allowed comparisons to be made between samples under nominally identical conditions.

特性>As expected mixes 3 and 4 showed very similar characteristics, with mix 4 exhibiting a slightly larger PTCR effect.

陶磁器製品の釉薬および陶磁器製品>GLAZE FOR POTTERY PRODUCT AND POTTERY PRODUCT

乏しい>私の英語スキルは乏しいです。My English skill is poor.


which文(〜であるが、それは〜)<あかさたなページに戻る>

     He said he saw me there, which was a lie.

彼はそこで私を見たというが、それはうそだった。

whichは前の文全体を差して、「それは〜」という使い方。

which> 「文」ということは〜。 という時のwhich

   The lattice constant decreases monotonically with increasing Zr4+ content for samples with x≦0.37, which indicates the formation of solid solutions.

   The processing and annealing conditions, which affect the properties of the alkali materials, are also investigated.

プロセッシングとアニーリング条件というのはアルカリ材料の特性に影響を与えるものであるが、それも調べた。

   These experiments, which included slow cooling from high temperatures and thermal annealing at a fixed temperature, failed to record any appreciable domain growth in the temperature range of 900-1325 deg.C.

   Results on the PMN composition indicate that the M.P.B. may exist near this composition, which is in agreement with earlier studies.(「下線部」ということは先の研究と一致している。)

    The highest value of the dielectric constant was attained with a substitution of 1 mol% BaO, which can be represented by the composition (Pb0.99Ba0.01)[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.9Ti0.1]O3. 「下線部」ということは〜で表現可能である。

   The samples prepared on the production facility showed much higher strength, which may be due to the presence of die lubricant  .

    The response was measured using LCR brige which can cover a frequency range from 20 to 100 Hz.

(20から100Hzの周波数をカバー出来るLCRブリッジ)

    The perovskite compounds are excellent commercial ferroelectric ceramics mainly due to their low firing temperature (〜1000℃), which leads to a reduction in the cost of internal electrodes.

あれが富士山で、私はそれに5回登ったんだ。      That is Mt. Fuji, which I climbed five times.

in which等> 

  ○at which

  The Michel peak disappears at T=50K.(主文)+ The anomaly was observed at T=50K(従文、説明文)

  → at T=50Kが共通しているので、従文のat T=50Kの50Kをwhichに置き換えて2文を1文にする。

  → The Michel peak disappears at T=50K at which the anomaly was observed.(which = T=50K)

      マイケルピークは異常が観察された温度である50ケルビンで消失した。

  言い換え)The Michel peak disappears at T=50K where the anomaly was observed.

○in which

  Electric field was applied in the plane(主文) + The magnetic moments lie in the plane(従文)

→ in the planeが共通しているので、従文のthe planeを接着材として一つの文にすることを考える。in the planeを前に持ってきて、

→ Electric field was applied in the plane + In the plane, the magnetic moments lie.

→ 従文のin the planeのthe planeをwhichに置き換えて2文を1文にする。

→ Electric field was applied in the plane in which the magnetic moment lie. (which = the plane)

  磁気モーメントが寝ている面内に電場をかけた。

   Under unfavourable conditions this could lead to a non-homogeneous materials, in which cracking could be induced from stress concentrators within the structure.

 

○by which

  The method was the same as that in ref.1. + The compound was grown by the method.

  →the methodが共通しているので、従文のthe methodをwhichに置き換えて、主文のthe methodの次に持ってきている。

  The method by which the compound was grown was the same as that in ref.2.

  その化合物を作製した方法は資料2の方法と同じである。

○to which

  The electronic structure will be disccused.(主文) + The basis vectors correspond to the electronic structure(従文)

  → the electronic structure が共通しているので、従文のelectronic structureをwhichで置き換えて、主文のthe electronic structureの後にはめこむ

  The electronic structure to which the basis vectors correspond will now be disccused.

  この基底ベクトルに対応する電子構造を以下で議論する。

○on which

  Appling magnetic field changes the lattice constant.(主文)+ The transition temperature is depend on the lattice constant.(従文)

  → the lattice constantが共通しているので、従文のthe lattice constantをwhichに置き換えて主文のthe lattice constantの後にはめ込む

  Appling magnetic field changes the lattice constant on which the transition temperature is depend.


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