わをんやゆよ Acknowledgments>

わ> <あかさたなページに戻る>

< 〜が分かった、〜であることが分かった >---------------------

〜が分かった。発見された。>The pyrochlore was found to have a dielectric constant of 130.

          The dielectric constant was found to increase 〜

          Transgranular failure was found to be more common 〜(〜であることが分かった)

          It was found from the result that 〜 この結果から、〜ということが分かった。


that以下であることが分かった。>It was found that the porosity〜(that以下の動詞は現在形にすること)

        It was found that BNT-BKT and BNT-BT system have low FE phase transition temperature and the piezoelectric properties disappear in the AFE phase. (文1と文2であることが分かったという例文)

that以下であることが分かる。>It can ( clearly ) be seen that the densification appear〜

                        It can be clearly seen that if the Tc for samples having compositions near PNN were measured at very low frequencies, e.g., 0.1Hz, then a linear relationship would probably exist.

〜であることが分かった>The sample compositions were measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and found to bein good agreement with theoretical values.

〜で分かるように〜>The unit cell volume increases with higher Zr contents, as noted in Fig.3(b), but the


〜が分かっている>The gel content of the films Genipin treated nanocomposites were determined via Soxhlet(ソックスレー) extraction(抽出) of samples with known weights using 2wt% acetic acid, for 3D.


分かりやすい、率直な>Furthermore, straightforward sintering conditions are appropriate, i.e. a temperature of 1275 degC for 2h.

わずかな、ほっそりした slight / 少ない、少数の fewer

〜は不明である。分からない。>The exact nature of surfaces of dielectric powders in relation to process conditions , unfortunately, is not well understood at this time.

わずかな〜、わずかに〜>The slight decrease in apparent slope at low frequencies has been ascribed to the slightly different ramp rates of the two runs.

    Mix 2 was slightly tougher with a similar dependence on atmosphere.

    Grain size was fairly consistently in the range 5-20μm, but the commercial titanate contained pores up to 40μmin diameter and cracks up to 50μm in width.


わずかな〜、わずかに〜>A standard muffle furnace was employed for air-sintered samples, with CO2-sintering carried out in a tube furnace with a steady flow of CO2 gas.

私達は〜>Because the two end members quite different responses to alterations in their chemical order, we were interested in examining at what point this system would exhibit a crossover from PMN-type to PSN-type behavior.

     We demonstrate that the weak-field dielectric properties of PMN-rich compositions (x<0.5) retain their insensitivity

〜にわたる、〜における>The changes in stability across the system were consistent with

割合>A single-phase cubic fluorite structure was observed for pigments with bismuth contents of 20 mol% or lower, whereas Bi2O3 was observed as an impurity phase in the sample with a Bi3+ content of 23 mol%.

     A critical Mn concentration for the formation of macroscopic ferroelectric domains is therefore proposed, which, because of the lower proportion of Mn to Mn ions in CO2-sintered systems, is only reached at higher manganese substitution-levels.

     At day 1, the percentage of cell attachment on XColl-Cell is 40% of initial cell seeding, whereas on negative control (polystyrene of the culture wells) cells started to proliferate and represent 160% of initial cell seeding.

     The gel content of the nanocomposites containing 0 75% of cellulose nanofibres and crosslinked with Genipin was measured and gel content on both cases was as high as 99%.


わな>Even when access to available pockets is not severely restricted-as may be the case when a polymer precursor is infiltrated with pressure-nonuniformity of the flow front can lead to entrapment of pores.

割り当てる>In 3-D effective medium elements that embody all properties not assigned to the line elements.

割れの〜>Fracture toughness values measured from the notched beams are shown in Fig. 3.

割れ>However, cracks were visible to the naked eye in compacts pressed at pressures in excess of 200MPa.

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〜を使って>The pattern was obtained with 〜 〜を使ってそのパターンを得た。

        The pattern was obtained for 〜 〜についてそのパターンを得た。

        The pattern was obtained from 〜 〜からそのパターンを得た。

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約〜>Ceramic specimens were sintered at about 1100℃ to more than 95% of theoretical density.

     The density of the samples is around 4.25. 論文ではaboutやaroundではなく、なるべくapproximatelyを使うこと。

      〜, which is approximately twice the strain response of a ramdom〜

    However, in CO2, relaxor properties persist up to concentrations of approximately 8mol% manganese.

役割>role for A in B  BAが果たす役割

    Models of this type provide insights into the roles of constituent properties in composite response.

約束された、有望な>Thus, the CeO pigment is a promising lead-free yellow pigment for the overglazing of Arita ware.

野心的な>Even with this experience, the most ambitious goals-including of CMCs in rotating components at temperatures up to 1500degC-will require improvements in fibers, matrices, and fiber coatings.

やってくる>A new epoch in high-temperature ceramic-matrix composites is upon us.

やる気が出る、動機となっている>Their use is motivated by their low density, high strength and toughness, and, in some cases, higher-temperature capability relative to nickel-based superalloys.

診断に役立つ>Such studies were later to become one of the major diagnostic techniques for finding new ferroelectrics.

軟らかい>Softer agglomerates tend to be preferable and tend to break into a range of sizes, thus providing better packing.

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有している>These materials have an advantage of processing temperatures, which are compatible with the sintering requirements.

        Poling piezoelectric samples with the conventional dc technique has many disadvantages.

有する>It is well known that the composition corresponding to 0.5/0.5 in the NaNbO3-KNbO3 system has the maximum in the piezoelectric properties.

有すること>To avoid elution and discoloration, it is essential that the overglazing of such ceramics and porcelains posses excellent chemical resistance to acids.

〜に由来する〜>TheseWeight loss due to PbO volatility was limited to less than 1%.

〜由来の>This is a significant volume change that may translate into either porosity or residual stresses in a precursor-derived film. as noted elsewhere.

                    The coloration of the latter pigments is derived from lead, iron, and antimony.

有益である。ためになる>Since this has also been observed for manganese-doping, it is instructive to compare the effects of doping with the two types of ion.

有益な>The commercial pressing and sintering processes were shown to be beneficial in producing stronger pellets.

有望な>promising pianist 有望なピアニスト

     All [cellulose nanocomposites and collagen-cellulose nanocomposites] were developed, both of which showed promising mechanical properties.

有望(そう)な兆し[兆候].a hopeful sign


約束された、有望な>Thus, the CeO pigment is a promising lead-free yellow pigment for the overglazing of Arita ware.

有用性>Double-blinded [double-blind] comparative studies confirmed usefulness of this drug.二重盲検比較試験によって本剤の有用性が認められた

 有効性>The effectiveness with which the Mn(III)O6-dipoles perform this function signifies their magnitude and concomitantlong-range interactions.

それは私にとってとても有効です。That is very effective for me.

 誘電率>The dielectric constant k and density were also found to increase with firing temperature.

 誘電特性>The dielectric properties of 0.6PFN-0.4PNN with 0.04PT samples fired at various times and temperatures are also reported in Table I.

有害な>These mechanisms appear to be most deleterious at intermediate temperatures (700-900).

許される>When the performance envelope is poorly understood, large safety factors on design stress, allowable temperatures, and component lifetimes must be used.

許す>The temperature of the furnace was then raised to 1320℃ to allow the formation of the liquid phase and densification.

     Each sample was allowed(〜になるのを許す) to equilibrate in the chamber for 5-10 min prior to testing.


歪み>Fourth, the strong ferroelastic bias in most small crystals made them almost always unipolar and even the larger samples were often spontaneously biased.

    It was also noted that the smaller pellets, which had a larger ratio of thickness to diameter, showed the greatest distortion following sintering and required substantial polishing prior to density and electrical measurements.


緩く>Loosely fitting alumina or zirconia rods served as plungers for transmitting the applied pressure to a preformed disk of the niobate composition.

    The use of a high compaction rate can lead to regions of crushed material as well as sites of loosely bonded material and damaging pores.


ゆっくりとした>Slower rates of compaction were also found to be advantageous, as confirmed by Youshaw and Halloran.


有害な>有害な化学物質noxious chemicals  有害物質deleterious substance  有害ガスdeleterious gas

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< 〜が求められている >-----------

〜が要求されている、必要とされている、望まれている、>〜 has been demanded to replace 〜

   There is thus a strong demand to develop new pigments.

   Therefore, a novel pigment that can be replace the color of koiki is required by potteries that place a premium on traditional colors.

〜が要求される。〜が求められている>A dense matrix is required for TGG because porosity reduces.

    It is also seen that the rate constant at a given temperature is independent of pressure, as required by theory.

    Such structures are therefore more readily processed into the very thin sections required for high-frequency transducers.

必用となる、要求される>This would require an examination of the dielectric properties of the dielectric properties of air-sintered samples at low dopant-levels.

要求されるもの>Also required is the use of pyrochlore-free PMN starting powders, which may be derived from industrial grade precursors.

要求>Current state-of-the-art SiC/SiC composites likely satisfy the requirements for engine components at temperatures up to ~1250degC.



推定する、予想する、推測する>Tanaka et al. deduced that there must be a uniform stress

予想されている、みなされている、予測されている>Piezoelectric properties of BNT are very interesting and it has been projected as the key non-lead material.

予測される>The grain size of the templated grains within samples containing 1vol%ST templates is predicted to be 〜1.7 times larger than in samples containing 5 vol%ST.

    The rate equation XXXX has been successfully used to predict the effect of changes in the hot-pressing conditions.

    However, the strain second harmonic was larger than the third and significantly ( 〜three to ten times ) larger than would be predivted based on electrostriction.

     Furthermore, the mechanical tests after sterilization(殺菌) are expected to provide valuable information about the usability of these materials as artificial ligament/tendon implants.

予想した通り、〜>As expected, 〜  As expected, mixes 3 and 4 showed very similar characteristics.

    As expected, mixes 3 and 4 showed very similar characteristics, with mix 4 exhibiting a slightly larger PTCR effect.

    The crosslinked materials showed higher strength than their non-crosslinked counter parts and the strain at break decreased further with crosslinking, as expected.

予測>Prediction of the degree of cracking and its effect on properties and durability is, therefore, crucial.

 予想出来る>In air, the oxidation state of the manganese ion can be expected to increase from +2 to +3, prior to reaction to form the desired perovskite product.

予想できない、期待できない>Here no direct oxidation to Mn2O3 is expected, so that any Mn3+ ions the final product would either be by direct oxidation within the perovskite phase, or alternatively via MnO.Mn2O3 as an intermediate.

〜であると予想される>Thus the overall decrease in a0 is only 0.025%, whereas the mean B-ion radius, assuming all manganese ions to be in the +3 state, is predicted to be reduced from 66 pm to 66 pm.

that以下が予想される>It is anticipated that one oxygen vacancy is introduced per Mn ion, with two Mn ions required to give rise to an oxygen vacancy.

予言的な>These developments are predicated on predictive models of the performance envelope.

要するに、〜>In short, 〜 / In essence, 〜  In essence both structures exhibit an fcc cation arrangement, but the A and B cations 〜

〜による、〜に帰する>The slight decrease has been ascribed to the ramp rates.

      be ascribed to 〜 〜に帰する、〜による

     This may be attributed to the more flexible crosslinks generated by genipin compared to gluterldehyde.


〜による〜、〜経由の〜>Following crystallization, further processing via RMI or CVI could be used to further density the matrix and enhance resistance to gas ingress.

〜(に)よるもの〜>The last exotherm between 600 and 700 deg.C was due to formation of 〜

                      This is believed to be due to the partial reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ leading to the increased electron hole conductivity commonly associated with Pb compounds.

〜によると>表によるとaccording to the table

報告によると、According to the report,

〜の原因によって>Doping Bi3+ in the CeO2-ZrO2 lattice generates intrinsic strain, which alters the Op2 valence band and reduces the band-gap energy due to the formation of a hybrid Bi6s and O2p orbital.

(疑わしいけれども)〜によれば、〜する。>According to 〜, 文〜. 例) According to XRD, 〜

       According toには、”疑わしいけれども”というニュアンスが入っている


〜によって、〜>In terms of frequency, the Tm behavior shows 〜.

      〜optimization in terms of the non-dimensional〜

      By adding the binder prior to milling, 〜    〜to optimize the piezoelectric properties by doping and forming solid solution.

      A series of PMN-PT-based solid solutions were prepared by the solid state reaction technique.

      On heating, the e-E curve changed to a "quadratic like" anhysteretic〜

      With the use of multiple printing heads, it is possible to

      The Pt interlayer was 100-300 A thick, and was deposited either by magnetron sputter deposition at room temperature, or by ion-beam sputter deposition at 400 ℃

       Thus by combining Pt and RuO2 into one bottom electrode, one can enhance nucleation

〜によって、〜を用いて>This was achieved by means of a thermocouple placed in the vicinity of the sample.



〜のような(〜といった)、〜>Measurements of other properties, such as X-ray and pyroelectric coefficients, suggest that 〜

〜なように、〜>, as evidnt for the 0.3mm sample.(0.3mm試料で明らかなように)

     As the XRD analysis (Fig.4) indicates, PbO reactivity for all methods is 〜

〜よりも>従来よりも安全性が高い木酢液を提供しようとするもの。To provide pyroligneous acid which is safer than a conventional one.

〜より高い>The resistivity measured at room temperature was slightly higher than 2x1012

     The loss factor of the piezoelectric PMN-30%PT is much higher than for the electrostrictive PMN-10PT.

because the perovskite Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)3 has higher MgO content than pyrochlore Pb1.83Mg0.29Nb1.71O6.39

     Figs 7-10 show the R-T plots obtained at oxygen partial pressures higher than 0.2 bar.

〜より少ない>The superlattice reflection intensity for C-10 was less than that for C-5.

                    An average grain size of 0.5 to 1.5 mm was observed for samples fired at 900 degC or less short durations (<2h), with the grain size increasing to a maximum of about 4 microns for samples fired at 900 degC to 10 h and/or 1000 degC for 5 h.


〜より大きい(低い)>E was greater for C-5 than B-5 in

      all these being at least 4 times greater than the respective standard deviations.   〜より少なくとも4倍以上大きい

      The piezoelectric response of the material is lower at time C than at time A. 

     Since the a* value of the present CeO2 pigment is much larger than that of the commercially available praseodymium yellow (Table 2), the panel coated with former is slightly reddish compared with that coated with the latter.

〜より多く>to recover over 99% of all

〜よりも〜>In summary, the concentration of Mn3+ ions is expected to be much greater in the air-sintered than in the CO2-sintered systems.


〜より良い、〜より良好>The properties are still significantly better than the random samples.

より〜>This method will be more attractive for PMN-PT

     The more stable the polarization state, the smaller the second harmonic should be.

     The dielectric constant is, as expected, higher for the more dense bodies.

より小さい〜>Smaller pellets 5.1 mm diameter and 3 mm thick were used for the electrical measurements.


〜というよりも、むしろ〜>the use of powder diffraction by neutrons rather than X-rays

抑える、抑制する>The most important criterion is suppression of the evaporating alkali metals above 1140 ℃.

〜される予定である>Further studies on this system are in progress and will be reported elsewhere.

〜様の〜>It should be mentioned that through the diffused E maxima and relaxor-type behavior were reported in some NaNbO3-BaTiO3 solid solution ceramics, the relaxor-like compositions belong to the BaTiO3-rich side of this system and are therefore out of scope of the present work.

〜は〜と呼ばれる>This process is called poling.

            Such compositions are referred to as "relaxor" ferroelectrics.

容易に〜、簡単に〜>The butyl group is a useful carboxyl-protecting group because it is easily cleaved by acids. 

     CMAS and reaction products readily crack upon cooling because of mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients.

     A residual porosity unsuitable for thin-section use often results from the sintering process and yet the bulk characteristics of the composition are readily realized and the material is quite useful in larger sections.

     容易に流れる特性 the property of flowing easily

     このストーブは容易にきれいになる This stove cleans easily


溶媒>After stirring at 353 K for 5h, the solvent was evaporated at 353 K using a rotary evaporator.

溶出>To avoid elution and discoloration, it is essential that the overglazing of such ceramics and porcelains posses excellent chemical resistance to acids

     Thus, a dissolution test was performed to evaluate the acid resistance of overglazed painting with the CeO pigment.

有害微量元素の溶出を抑制する溶出防止剤 Elution preventing agent for inhibiting elution of harmful trace element

電極113はイオン溶出性が高く、電極114はイオン溶出性が低い The electrode 113 has high ion elution performance while the electrode 114 has a low ion elution performance


     The wiring board for inner layers is preferably heated and pressured, by the fusing head via a fusing prevention member for preventing the prepreg from fusing with the fusing head.

       被溶着部材への溶着を確実に行う。To assure welding to a welded member.

      レゾネーターを箱構成体の溶着によって構成する。To configure a resonator by welding box forming body.

      カバーは基板に超音波溶着により溶着される。A cover is welded to the substrate by ultrasonic welding.

容認できないぐらい>This rate of material loss is unacceptably high for engine components with expected lifetimes of many thousands of hours.

予防する>Contacts prevent deposition of fiber coatings and allow fibers to sinter to one another locally during processing or in service.

容量の>Because of the mass loss and changes in mass density that accompany pyrolysis, volumetric yields are typically 20%-30%.

〜の様子>I am going to observe the state of that machine for a while. 私はその機械の様子をしばらく観察する。

予言する>The second goal in this presentation is to predict the future of ferroelectric ceramics, and to unravel and evolving technology of this type; an even more difficult task.

よく知られている>Certainly, however, the work must have been rather well known to the small inner circle of workers in this field, and was no doubt most helpful in fowarding understanding of this material.

四点曲げ>The largest values of strength measured by diametral compression and four-point bending for the sintered pellets were for mix2 (Fig.6).

横取り、傍受>Using the intercept obtained from the graphs or from the equation and the rate constant from the best fit of the date of Fig. 2, a calculation of (XXXX) was made for various conditions of times, temperature, and pressure and compared with the experimental date.

よそで>Electrical characteristics have been limited to establishing resistance-temperature plots using techniques fully described elsewhere.

呼ぶ> The final crosslinked nanocomposites contained 75wt% nanocellulose and crosslinked collagen phase and is referred to as(〜と呼ばれる) XColl-Cell.



お礼をいいたい>The authors wish to thank T.Tanaka for his technical skills and Dr. T.Suzuki for their encouragement and helpful discussions.as evidnt for the 0.3mm sample.

     We also thank K.Tanaka, France, for making this work possible.

     We acknowledge the support of Dr. Tarou Suzuki of Hoechst Research Co.

     We would like to thank Professors J.S. Suzuki and A.K. Tanaka, and Dr. C.D.E.Kato for useful discussions, as well as Mr. D.Matsumoto for technical assistance in the laboratory.

    We would like to thank Morgan Unilator for supplying the PZT powder we used in this study. The authors would like to thank Dr.K.Kusumoto and M.Matsumoto for their useful comments.

支援してもらった>Support for this work was provided by ARPA under Contract No.N00014-93-1-0591.

   This work was supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Nanostructure Forming for Ceramics Integration Project of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) of Japan.